Psychopharmacotherapy General Considerations

There are numerous approaches to smoking cessation and many comprehensive reviews of the literature (e.g., Hymowitz, 1999; Lando, 1993; Leventhal & Cleary, 1980; Schwartz, 1987). Although many approaches to smoking cessation have been successful in the short run, few, if any, have proved satisfactory in the long term. This is true for traditional group and individual counseling programs, hypnosis and acupuncture, self-help stop-smoking strategies, multi-component behavioral interventions, and pharmacological therapies (Hunt & Bespalec, 1974; Hymowitz, 1999; Yudkin et al., 2003). The tendency of smokers to quit, relapse, and quit highlights the cyclic nature of the quitting process and serves as a reminder that as much care and effort must go into helping smokers remain cigarette-free as into helping them stop smoking in the first place.

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