The Important Role Of Stress

That drug abuse patients are more vulnerable to stress than the general population is a clinical truism. Numerous preclinical studies have documented that physical stressors (e.g., foot shock or restraint stress) and psychological stressors can cause animals to reinstate drug use (e.g., Shaham, Erb, & Stewart, 2000). Furthermore, stressors can trigger drug craving in addicted humans (Sinha, Catapano, & O'Malley, 1999). One potential explanation for these observations is that abused drugs, including opiates and stimulants, raise levels of cortisol, a hormone that plays a primary role in stress responses; cortisol, in turn, raises the level of activity in the mesolimbic reward system (Kreek & Koob, 1998). By these mechanisms, stress may contribute to the abuser's desire to take drugs in the first place, as well as to his or her subsequent compulsion to keep taking them.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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