How to Reverse Testicular Atrophy
The suffix -cele refers to a swelling or noncancerous tumor within a body cavity. Sometimes fluids build up in the scrotum. For example, a hydrocele is a collection of watery fluid in the membrane covering the testicles. A hematocele is a collection of blood that may result after injury to or rupture of a testicle. A spermatocele is a cyst full of sperm that develops next to the epididymis. A varicocele is a mass of varicoselike veins caused by a malfunction of the valves within the veins of the spermatic cord. It has been described as feeling like a bag of worms. Most often it causes a dull pain or a feeling of heaviness, usually on the left side of the scrotum.
Or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant. Multiple pheresis, or removal of cells from the blood, provides the stem cells from the patient for transplantation. SCT permits the use of doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy high enough to destroy the patient's bone marrow after the treatment is completed SCT restores blood-producing bone marrow stem cells. Radiation treatment is sometimes used to treat leukemic cells in the brain, spinal cord, or testicles.
Hormone levels play a role in men's sexual expression, and changes in hormone levels may account for some of the age-related changes in sexuality. Testosterone is the key hormone that regulates sexual response in men and has some effect in women. Testosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, testicles, and ovaries. Women produce less than a tenth of the amount produced by men. Testosterone levels in men are highest in the morning right after waking and decrease throughout the day, so blood tests for testosterone are taken before 9 00 am for accuracy. After a rise during adolescence, testosterone production declines throughout life in men. Much less is known about age-related production of testosterone in women.
The male reproductive organs are shown in the accompanying illustration. Sperm, which carry the man's genes, and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, are made in the testicles. Each of the two testicles is about the size of a walnut, and they lie side by side inside the scrotum. (The left testicle usually hangs a little lower than the right.) The scrotum, a thin-skinned pouch, protects the testicles and acts as a climate-control system. Since the testicles need to be slightly cooler than body temperature for normal sperm development, the scrotum lies outside the body. The epididymis, which lies atop each testicle, is a coiled tube that collects sperm from the testicles and stores them until they are mature. The most visible parts of the male reproductive system are the penis and the testicles.The two testicles are suspended in a pouch of skin called the scrotum. During sexual arousal, spongy tissue inside the penis becomes engorged with blood.The testicles produce sperm and the...
Borderline leprosy numerous, asymmetric, moderately anesthetic, red, irregularly shaped plaques less well defined than those in the tuberculoid type regional adenopa-thy sometimes present Lepromatous leprosy only infectious stage early cutaneous lesions consisting mainly of pale, small, diffuse, symmetric macules, which become infiltrated later, with little loss of sensation nerves not thickened and sweating normal alopecia of lateral eyebrows, eyelashes, and trunk, but scalp hair intact lepromatous infiltrations either diffuse nodules (lepromas) or plaques, which result in appearance of leonine facies brawny lower extremity edema neuritic lesions symmetric and slow to develop eye involvement causes pain photophobia, decreased visual acuity, glaucoma, and blindness testicular atrophy produces sterility and gynecomastia lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly result from organ infiltration stridor and hoarseness from laryn-geal involvement nasal infiltration sometimes produces a saddle-nose...
Alcohol interferes with gonadal function even in the absence of cirrhosis by inhibiting normal testicular, pituitary, and hypothalamic function. Testicular atrophy, low testosterone levels, decreased beard growth, diminished sperm count, and a loss of libido result. However, testicular atrophy does not occur in all male alcoholics but is associated with alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in the testes, as reflected by the genetic variant of an increased frequency of the ADH21 allele (Yanauchi et al., 2001).
Born with undescended testicles (see page 162) a condition called cryptorchidism. The risk increases if the condition is not surgically corrected before puberty. Other conditions associated with testicular cancer include Klinefelter syndrome a chromosomal disorder in males characterized by small testicles, enlarged breasts, and a lack of secondary sex characteristics such as beard growth and voice change gonadal aplasia failure of the testicles to develop Most testicular cancers are found by men themselves, either by chance or while performing a self-examination of the testicles (see page 91). Symptoms of testicular cancer include the following If you notice any of these symptoms, see a doctor immediately. Cancer of the testicles usually does not cause pain, although some men may experience soreness or discomfort in the scrotum or in the groin area. Men with suspected testicular cancer usually undergo a complete medical checkup, including a careful examination of the testicles. If the...
L., Nicholas, J. M., Martinez di Osaba, M. J., Antunez, E., & Pimentel, C. J. (1977). Testicles function in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics Relation to ethanol intake. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 21(1), 128-133. Yanauchi, M., Takeda, K., Sakamoto, K., Searaski, Y., Vetake, S., Kenichi, H., & Toda, G. (2001). Association of polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene with alcohol-induced testicular atrophy. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 25 (Suppl 6), 165-185.
Trichomonas vaginalis, a single-celled bacterium, can lodge in the urethra, the bladder, or, less often, the prostate. Sometimes it can cause a frothy or puslike discharge and painful or frequent urination, especially early in the morning. Other symptoms may include mild irritation of the urethra and moisture at the opening of the penis. In rare cases, the epididymis, the cordlike structure behind each testicle, also may be infected with the bacterium, causing pain in the testicles.
Jjver disease, chronic often due to alcohol, hepatitis, and metabolic diseases (hernocbro matosis, Wilson's disease, alpha, antitrypsin deficiency). Stigmata of chronic liver disease include gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, palmar erythema, spider angiomas on skin, and ascites.
Examining your testicles once a month will help you to become familiar with their normal appearance so you can tell if something unusual turns up. A small, hard, painless lump on or enlargement of a testicle could be a sign of cancer. This type of cancer usually affects young men between the ages of 15 and 35. If another man in your family had cancer of the testicle, your risk is higher than normal. Early detection and treatment of cancer of the testicle is crucial because the cure rate is very high (about 90 percent) when the disorder is found and treated early. The best time to examine your testicles is after a shower or a bath, when the muscles in your scrotum are relaxed. To examine your testicles, follow these steps If you find a lump, call your doctor right away. The lump may be an infection that requires treatment, or it may be cancer. You should also contact your doctor if one of your testicles has not descended from the abdomen, if you have pain or swelling in your scrotum,...
Among men, chlamydia is one of the leading causes of urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). If you experience pain during urination, burning or itching around the urethra, a discharge from the penis, or swelling in the testicles, you may have chlamydia. About 50 percent of infected men have none of these symptoms and do not get treatment, which puts their sexual partners at considerable risk.
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