Hormones Thyroid Agent

1 Weetman AP: Autoimmune thyroid disease: propagation and progression. Eur J Endocrinol 2003; 148:1-9.

2 Dechairo BM, Zabaneh D, Collins J, Brand O, Dawson GJ, Green AP, Mackay I, Franklyn JA, Connell JM, Wass JA, Wiersinga WM, Hegedus L, Brix T, Robinson BG, Hunt PJ, Weetman AP, Carey AH, Gough SC: Association of the TSHR gene with Graves' disease: the first disease specific locus. Eur J Hum Genet 2005;13:1223-1230.

3 Simmonds MJ, Gough SCL: Genetic insights into disease mechanisms of autoimmunity. Br Med Bul 2005;71:93-113.

4 Vestergaard P: Smoking and thyroid disorders. Eur J Endocrinol 2002;146:153-161.

5 Chiovato L, Pinchera A: Stressful life events and Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;134:680-682.

6 Viskari H, Paronen J, Keskinen P, Simell S, Zawilinska B, Zgorniak-Nowosielska I, Korhonen S, Ilonen J, Simell O, Haapala A-M, Knip M, Hyöty H: Humoral ß-cell autoimmunity is rare in patients with the congenital rubella syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 2003;133:378-383.

7 Su MA, Anderson MS: Aire: an update. Curr Opinion Immunol 2004;16:746-752.

8 Sakaguchi S: The origin of FOXP3-expressing CD4+ regulatory T cells, thymus or periphery. J Clin Invest 2003;112:1310-1312.

9 Penhale WI, Farmer A, McKenna RP, Irvine WJ: Spontaneous thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated Wistar rats. Clin Exp Immunol 1973;15:225-236.

10 Kriegel MA, Lohmann T, Gabler C, Blank N, Kalden JR, Lorenz H-M: Defective suppressor function of human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II. J Exp Med 2004;199:1285-1291.

11 Chen F, Day SL, Metcalfe RA, Sethi G, Moses S, Kapembwa M, Brook G, Churchill D, de Ruiter A, Robinson S, Lacey CJ, Weetman AP: Characteristics of autoimmune thyroid disease occurring as a late complication of immune reconstitution in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 2005;84:98-106.

12 Marelli-Berg FM, Weetman AP, Frasca L, Deacock SJ, Imami N, Lombardi G, Lechler RI: Antigen presentation by epithelial cells induces anergic immunoregulatory CD45RO1 T cells and deletion of CD45RA1 T cells. J Immunol 1997;159:5853-5861.

13 McIntosh RS, Asghar MS, Weetman AP: The antibody response in human autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Sci 1997;92:529-541.

14 Gilbert JA, Gianoukakis AG, Salehi S, Moorhead J, Rao PV Khan MZ, McGregor AM, Smith TJ, Banga JP: Monoclonal pathogenic antibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in Graves' disease with potent thyroid-stimulating activity but differential blocking activity activate multiple signalling pathways. J Immunol. In press.

15 McLachlan SM, Braley-Mullen H, Chen C-R, Aliesky H, Pichurin PN, Rapoport B: Dissociation between iodide-induced thyroiditis and antibody-mediated hyperthyroidism in NOD.H-2h4 Mice. Endocrinology 2005;146:294-300.

16 Weetman AP: Cellular immune responses in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol 2004;61: 405-413.

17 Hazard JB: Thyroiditis: a review. Am J Clin Pathol 1995;25:289-298.

18 Rallison ML, Dobyns BM, Keating FR, Rail JE, Tyler FH: Occurrence and natural history of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in childhood. J Pediatr 1975;86:675-682.

19 Gruneiro de Papendieck L, Jorcansky S, Rivarola MA, Bergada C: Variations in clinical, hormonal and serological expressions of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) in children and adolescents. Clin Endocrinol 1982;16:19-28.

20 Okamura K, Sato K, Ikenoue H, Nakagawa M, Kuroda T, Yoshinari M, Fujishima M: Primary hypothyroidism manifested in childhood with special reference to various types of reversible hypothyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;131:131-137.

21 Matsuura N, Konishi J, Yuri K, Harada S, Fujieda K, Nohara Y, Mikami Y, Kasagok K, Iida Y, Hosoda A: Comparison of atrophic and goitrous auto-immune thyroiditis in children; clinical, laboratory and TSH-receptor antibody studies. Eur J Pediatr 1990;149:529-533.

22 Doniach D, Nilsson LR, Roitt IM: Autoimmune thyroiditis in children and adolescents II. Immunological correlations and parent study. Acta Paediatr Scand 1965;54:260-274.

23 Burek CL, Hoffman WH, Rose NR: The presence of thyroid autoantibodies in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroid disease and in their siblings and parents. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1982;25:395-404.

24 Marwaha RK, Sen S, Tandon N, Sahoo M, Walia RP, Singh S, Ganguly SK, Jain SK: Familial aggregation of autoimmune thyroiditis in first degree relatives of patients with juvenile autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid 2003;13:297-300.

25 Hattersley AT, McCarthy MI: What makes a good genetic association study? Lancet 2005;366: 1315-1323.

26 Taylor JC, Gough SC, Hunt PJ, Brix TH, Chatterjee K, Connell JM, Franklyn JA, Hegedus L, Robinson BG, Wiersinga WM, Wass JAH, Zabaneh D, Mackay I, Weetman AP: A genome-wide screen in 1119 relative pairs with autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91: 646-653.

27 Tomer Y, Davies TF: Searching for the autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility genes: from gene mapping to gene function. Endocr Rev 2003;24:694-717.

28 Maenpaa J, Lautenschlager I, Nyberg M, Koskimies S, Kontiainen S: Thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes, thyroid function, and HLA-DR in juvenile autoimmune thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol 1989;121:573-577.

29 Segni M, Pani MA, Pasquino AM, Badenhoop K: Familial clustering of juvenile thyroid autoimmunity: higher risk is conferred by human leukocyte antigen DR3-DQ2 and thyroid peroxidase antibody status in fathers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:3779-3782.

30 Larizza D, Calcaterra V, Martinetti M, Negrini R, De Silvestri A, Cisternino M, Iannone AM, Solcia E: Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid disease in young patients: the disadvantage of carrying the human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*0301 allele. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:176-179.

31 Abrams P, De Leeuw I, Vertommen J, The Belgian Diabetes Registry: In new-onset insulin-dependent diabetic patients the presence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies is associated with islet cell autoimmunity and the high risk haplotype HLA DQA1*0302. Diabet Med 1996;13:415-419.

32 De Block CEM, De Leeuw IH, Decochez K, Winnock F, Van Autreve J, Van Campenhout M, Martin M, Gorus FK: The Belgian Diabetes Registry: The presence of thyrogastric antibodies in first degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients is associated with age and proband antibody status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4358-4363.

33 Kim EY, Shin CH, Yang SW: Polymorphisms of HLA class II predispose children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus to autoimmune thyroid disease. Autoimmunity 2003;36:177-181.

34 Takara M, Komiya I, Kinjo Y, Tomoyose T, Yamashiro S, Akamine H, Masuda M, Takasu N: Association of CTLA-4 gene A/G polymorphism in Japanese type 1 diabetic patients with younger age of onset and autoimmune thyroid disease. Diab Care 2000;23:975-978.

35 Iwama S, Ikezaki A, Kikuoka N, Kim HS, Matsuoka H, Yanagawa T, Sato H, Hoshi M, Sakamaki T, Sugihara S: Association of HLA-DR, -DQ genotype and CTLA-4 gene polymorphism with Graves' disease in Japanese children. Horm Res 2005;63:55-60.

36 Wong GWK, Cheng SH, Dorman JS: The HLA-DQ associations with Graves' disease in Chinese children. Clin Endocrinol 1999;50:493-495.

37 Lo Fs, Lee YJ, Huang CY, Lin CH, Chang SC, Dang CW, Liu HF: Polymorphsm in the transmembrane region of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A: association of five GCT repetitions with Graves' disease in children. Thyroid 2003;13:839-843.

38 Lavard L, Madsen HO, Perrild H, Jacobsen BB, Svejgaard A: HLA class II associations in juvenile Graves' disease: indication of a strong protective role of the DRB1*0701, DQA1*0201 haplotype. Tissue Antigens 1997;50:639-641.

39 Doniach D, Roitt IM, Polani PE: Thyroid antibodies and sex-chromosome anomalies. Proc R Soc Med 1968;61:278-280.

40 Livadas S, Xekouki P, Fouka F, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Kaloumenou I, Mavrou A, Constantinidou N, Dacou-Voutetakis C: Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Turner's syndrome: a long-term follow-up study and brief literature review. Thyroid 2005;15:1061-1066.

41 Aghini-Lombardi F, Antonangeli L, Maztino E, Vitti P, Maccherini D, Leoli F, Rago T, Grasso L, Valeriano R, Balestrieri A, Pinchera A: The spectrum of thyroid disorders in an iodine-deficient community: The Pescopagano survey. J Clin Endocrinol 1999;84:561-566.

42 Kabelitz M, Liesenkötter KP, Stach B, Willgerodt H, Stäblein W, Singendonk W, Jäger-Roman E, Litzenbörger H, Ehnert B, Grüters A: The prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and autoimmune thyroiditis in children and adolescents in an iodine replete area. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148:301-307.

43 Valdiserri RO, Borochovitz D: Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1980;104:150-152.

44 Vykhovanets EV, Chernyshov VP, Slukvin II, Antipkin YG, Vasyuk AN, Klimenko HF, Strauss KW: 131I Dose-dependent thyroid autoimmune disorders in children living around Chernobyl. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1997;84:251-259.

45 Wong GWK, Kwok MY, Ou Y: High incidence of juvenile Graves' disease in Hong Kong. Clin Endocrinol 1995;43:697-700.

46 Krassas GE, Segni M, Wiersinga WM: Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy: results of a European questionnaire study. Eur J Endocrinol 2005;153:515-520.

47 Bossowski A, Urban M, Stasiak-Barmuta A: Analysis of changes in the percentage of B (CD19) and T (CD3) lymphocytes, subsets CD4, CD8 and their memory (CD45R0), and naive (CD45RA) T cells in children with immune and non-immune thyroid diseases. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2003;16:63-70.

48 Bossowski A, Stasiak-Barmuta A, Urban M: Relationship between CTLA-4 and CD28 molecule expression on T lymphocytes and stimulating and blocking autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor in children with Graves' disease. Horm Res 2005;64:189-197.

49 Weetman AP: Non-thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease. Best Practice Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;19:17-32.

50 Loviselli A, Velluzzi F, Mossa P, Cambosu MA, Secci G, Atzeni F, Taberlet A, Balestrieri A, Martino E, Grasso L, Songini M, Bottazzo Mariotti S: Sardinian Schoolchildren Study Group: The Sardinian Autoimmunity Study 3. Studies on circulating antithyroid antibodies in Sardinian schoolchildren: relations to goiter prevalence and thyroid function. Thyroid 2001;11:849-857.

51 Pietropaolo M, Peakman M, Pietropaolo SL, Zanone MM, Foley TP Jr, Becker DJ, Trucco M: Combined analysis of GAD65 and ICA512(IA-2) Autoantibodies in organ and non-organ-specific autoimmune diseases confers high specificity for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Autoimmun 1998;11:1-10.

52 Kordonouri O, Deiss D, Danne T, Dorow A, Bassir C, Grüters-Kieslich A: Predictivity of thyroid autoantibodies for the development of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diab Med 2002;19:518-521.

53 Hansen D, Bennedbaek FN, H0ier-Madsen M, Hegedüs L, Jacobsen BB: A prospective study of thyroid function, morphology and autoimmunity in young patients with type 1 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148:245-251.

54 Hanukoglu A, Mizrachi A, Dalal I, Admoni O, Bakover Y, Bistritzer Z, Levine A, Somekh E, Lehmann D, Tuval M, Boaz M, Golander A: Extrapancreatic autoimmune manifestations in type 1 diabetes patients and their first-degree relatives. Diab Care 2003;26:1235-1240.

55 Jaeger C, Hatziagelaki E, Petzoldt R, Bretzel RG: Comparative analysis of organ-specific autoantibodies and celiac disease-associated antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, their first-degree relatives, and healthy control subjects. Diab Care 2001;24:27-32.

56 De Block CEM, De Leeuw IH, Van Gaal LF, The Belgian Diabetes Registry: High prevalence of manifestations of gastric autoimmunity in parietal cell antibody-positive type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:4062-4067.

57 Jenkins RC, Weetman AP: Disease associations with autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid 2002;12: 977-988.

58 Borrelli SM, Pucarelli I, Delle Fave G, Pasquino AM, Annibale B: Early manifestations of gastric autoimmunity in patients with juvenile autoimmune thyroid diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:4944-4948.

59 Nanda A, Alsaleh QA, Al-Hasawi F, Al-Muzairai I: Thyroid function, autoantibodies, and HLA tissue typing in children with alopecia areata. Pediatr Dermatol 2002;19:486-491.

60 Huang C-M, Yang Y-H, Chiang B-L: Different familial association patterns of autoimmune diseases between juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2004;37:88-94.

Anthony P. Weetman Professor of Medicine

School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield Beech Hill Road Sheffield, S10 2RX (UK)

Tel. +44 114 271 2570, Fax +44 114 271 3960, E-Mail [email protected]

Krassas GE, Rivkees SA, Kiess W (eds): Diseases of the Thyroid in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatr Adolesc Med. Basel, Karger, 2007, vol 11, pp 118-127

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