Gingiva

Normal gingiva (Fig. 5-1)-exhibiting no fluid exudate or inflammation due to bacterial plaque-is pink and stippled. It varies in width from 1 to 9 mm and extends from the free margin of the gingiva to the alveolar mucosa. The gingivae and alveolar mucosa are separated by a demarcation called the mucogingival junction (MGJ), which marks the differentiation between stippled keratinized tissue and smooth, shiny mucosa; the latter contains more elastic fibers in its connective tissue. Apical to the MGJ, the alveolar mucosa then forms the vestibule and attaches to the muscles and fascia of the lips and cheeks.

The gingiva (Fig. 5-2) consists of three parts: 1. Free (marginal) gingiva-extending from the most corona' aspect of the gingiva to the epithelial attachment with the tooth

Stippled Gingiva
Fig. 5-1. Normal gingiva.
Free Gingival Groove

Fig. 5-2. Normal gingival structure and anatomic landmarks. MG, Marginal gingiva; FGG, free gingival groove; AG, attached gingiva; MG], mucogingival junction; AM, alveolar mucosa.

(Redrawn from Schluger S et al: Periodontal disease, ed 2, Philadelphia, 1990, Lea & Febiger.)

Fig. 5-2. Normal gingival structure and anatomic landmarks. MG, Marginal gingiva; FGG, free gingival groove; AG, attached gingiva; MG], mucogingival junction; AM, alveolar mucosa.

(Redrawn from Schluger S et al: Periodontal disease, ed 2, Philadelphia, 1990, Lea & Febiger.)

2. Attached gingiva-extending from the level of the epithelial attachment to the junction between the gingiva and the alveolar mucosa (the MGJ)

3. Interdental papillae-triangular projections of gingivae filling the area between adjacent teeth and consisting of a buccal and a lingual component separated by a central concavity (the col)

A V-shaped depression on the labial or buccal surface of the gingiva at or somewhat apical to the level of the epithelial attachment to the tooth is called the free gingival groove. It is not always readily apparent clinically but can be seen histologically and may serve as a reference point for dividing the free gingiva from the labial or buccal-attached gingiva.

The gingiva consists of dense collagen fibers, sometimes referred to as the gingivodental ligament, which can be divided into alveologingival, den-togingival, circular, dentoperiosteal, and transseptal groups. These fibers firmly bind the gingiva to the teeth and are continuous with the underlying alveolar periosteum. A more detailed description can be found in standard periodontal texts . 4-8

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  • Delfina
    Which fibres of gingiva bind free gingiva to tooth?
    7 years ago

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