Traditional Chinese Medicine
An investigation into the management of the spasticity experienced by some patients with multiple sclerosis using acupuncture based on traditional Chinese medicine. Compl Ther Med 1996 4 58-62. 8. Xi L, Zhiwen L, Huayan W, et al. Preventing relapse in multiple sclerosis with Chinese medicine. J Chin Med 2001 66 39-40. 9. Yi S, Xiaoyan L. A review on traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Trad Chinese Med 1999 19 65-73.
Louis Mosby, 2001, pp. 333-369. Hsu DT, Cheng RL. Acupuncture. In Weintraub MI, Micozzi MS, eds. Alternative and Complementary Treatments in Neurologic Illness. New York Churchill Livingstone, 2001, pp. 11-26. Lin Y-C. Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine. In Oken BS, ed. Complementary Therapies in Neurology. London Parthenon Publishing, 2004, pp. 113-125. Checkmark Books. 2005, pp. 2-5. Nielsen A, Hammerschlag R. Acupuncture and East Asian medicine. In Kligler B, Lee R, eds. Integrative Medicine Principles for Practice. New York McGraw Hill, 2004, pp. 177-217. Borchers AT, Hackman RM, Keen CL, et al. Complementary medicine A review of immunomodulatory effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Am J Clin Nutrition 1997 66 1303-1312. Chan TYK, Critchley JAJH. Usage and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Human Exp Toxicol 1996 15 5-12. Miller RE. An investigation into the management of the spasticity experienced by some patients with multiple sclerosis using...
Aromatherapy may be obtained from a practitioner or may be self-administered. It is sometimes combined with herbal medicine or traditional Chinese medicine. Aromatherapy may be provided on an individual basis or as informational classes. Individual sessions typically cost 60 to 80 and last about 60 minutes. Classes cost about 30 for 60 to 120 minutes.
The most popular herb sales in the United States include Echinacea (10 ), garlic (10 ), goldenseal* (7 ), ginseng (6 ), Ginkgo (4.5 ), and saw palmetto (4.4 ). * Goldenseal is often used illicitly in unsuccessful attempts to disguise urinary marijuana (THC) metabolites. There are no toxicologic databases on herbal and vitamin toxicity in the United States. In Hong Kong, herbal medicine toxicity accounts for less than 1 of all acute hospital admissions, and Western medicine toxicity and drug-drug interactions account for 4.4 of all acute hospital admissions. Fatalities have resulted from megadoses of the fat-soluble and lipophilic (stored in liver and brain) vitamins A, D, and E and therapeutic (homeopathic) doses of niacin and tryptophan.
In the history of medicinal plant use in eastern Asia and Siberia, a very important school of medical practice, traditional Chinese medicine, links practices from a number of traditions that have been handed down by word of mouth (as in Siberia or northern China) and for which written historical sources are very rare and poorly investigated (e.g., Mongolian traditional medicine and the Tibetan school). The Chinese Materia Medica has been growing throughout the last 2,000 years (Benski and Gamble 1993). This increase results from the integration of drugs into the official tradition from China's popular medicine as well as from other parts of the world. The first major Materia Medica after Tao Hong Jing was the Xin xiu ben cao 659 ad, also known as Tang Materia Medica, which was the official pharmacopoeia of the Tang dynasty. It contained 844 entries and was China's first illustrated Materia Medica. Zheng lei ben cao, 1108 ad, was the major medical treatise during the Song dynasty and...
Winter cherry, also known as Indian ginseng, has similar alleged rejuvenating properties to that of ginseng in Chinese medicine. The plant is endemic to India, particularly in the sub-Himalayan (1000 m) tracts of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and the drier parts of India. Its use can be traced back to Assyrian sources, and the drug was already used in Mesopotamia as a narcotic. Ancient sacred writings of Hinduism from India praise the plant as a wonder drug, and it was used as a charm and as an aphrodisiac. In Europe it has been known since the 16th century and it is included in many herbals. In Ayurvedic medicine the roots are used to treat ulcers, fever, breathing difficulties, cough, tuberculosis, dropsy, and a variety of nervous disorders.
A small 1999 study found that t'ai chi may be beneficial for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) (1). This study, conducted at the American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine in San Francisco, examined the effects of an 8-week t'ai chi group program on 19 people with MS. People were accepted into the study regardless of the severity of their disability. T'ai chi improved emotional and social function and produced physical benefits, with a 21 percent improvement in walking speed and a 28 percent decrease in muscle stiffness. Comments obtained from participants indicated that
Many commonly used herbs may stimulate the immune system (see Table 23.2). Echinacea is the most well known of these herbs. Some other herbs in this category are among the most popular herbs in the United States, including alfalfa, Asian ginseng, astragalus, cat's claw, garlic, saw palmetto, and Siberian ginseng. Other immune-stimulating herbs may be found in this book in the chapters on Asian herbal medicine and Ayurvedic medicine.
How could a needle stuck into the skin possibly provide pain relief and other medical benefits Many answers to this question have been proposed. As noted, from a traditional Chinese medicine perspective, the insertion of needles is believed to alter the flow of energy in such a way that it produces therapeutic effects. From a Western scientific viewpoint, various possible mechanisms have been explored. One explanation for the pain-relieving effects of acupuncture is that it releases opioids, chemicals produced by the body that decrease pain. Other studies indicate that levels of another chemical, serotonin, are altered by acupuncture. Studies on the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicate that acupuncture may change the activity in specific pain-related brain regions. Acupuncture also may decrease stress or, in some situations, act as a placebo. In the end, it may be found that multiple processes are involved.
On the basis of current evidence, acupuncture and Asian herbal medicine, both of which are components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), should be approached differently by people with MS. Acupuncture is of low risk, is possibly beneficial, and may be a reasonable treatment option for some people with MS. In contrast, Asian herbal medicine should be considered with caution by people with MS, especially for use on a long-term basis. Reports of treatment benefits using this therapy cannot be fully evaluated because of the lack of published information in English. Some herbs may be toxic or may stimulate the immune system, and the safety of long-term treatment has not generally been established.
Ayurveda consists of several components. As in traditional Chinese medicine, pulse and tongue evaluation are important for diagnosis. Diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and specific supplements are used therapeutically. Yoga, breathing exercises, massage, and meditation, discussed elsewhere in this book, are also components of Ayurveda. One type of Ayurvedic meditation, transcendental meditation (TM), was popularized by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Another important aspect of Ayurveda, panchakarma, is used for disease prevention. Panchakarma means five processes and includes massages, sweat baths, vomiting, enemas, and bloodletting (through the use of leeches).
-assage is a healing method that has been used for thousands of years. It was a recommended therapy in ancient China and Egypt. Many common forms of massage now used in the United States are derived from Swedish massage, which was developed by a Swedish physician in the nineteenth century. Massage may be provided on its own, or it may be a component of other forms of alternative healing, including Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and aromatherapy.
editation is a type of mind-body therapy, a class of therapies that also includes biofeedback, hypnosis, and guided imagery. For thousands of years, meditation has been practiced in some form, especially in the context of religious practice. Also, meditation is one of several components of some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, including Ayurveda (which uses transcendental meditation or TM) and traditional Chinese medicine.
CambridgeSoft45 and GVK Biosciences148 released the MediChem database, a medicinal chemistry database indexing over 500 000 compounds in more than 650 000 records selected from the top 25 medicinal chemistry journals.149 The database consists of chemical information, literature reference (standard and PubMed ID), and biological activity data (bioassay, target, activity). Assays include absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME), binding information for a target and its mutants, functional assays (e.g., cell based or in vivo), toxicity, etc. Records can be queried by target platform, e.g., kinase, GPCR, NHR, etc. Ashgate Drugs Synonyms and Properties is a database of over 8000 drug substances currently in common use worldwide, while Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM, also available from Daylight CIS) contains information on 10458 compounds isolated from 4636 TCM natural sources, comprised mostly of plants, a small number of animals, and a few minerals. The Merck Index is a...
Traditional Chinese Medicine
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