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Tympanic Membrane Scerosis

Figure 11.4 The class C2 tumor erodes the vertical carotid canal up to the carotid genu.

Figure 11.3 The class C tumor originates in the dome of the jugular bulb and destroys the infralabyrinthine compartment. The tumor may spread in the following directions: interiorly, along the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves IX—XII; suPeriorly, towards the otic caPsule and the internal auditory canal; Posteriorly, into the sigmoid sinus; anteriorly, to the internal carotid artery; more medially, to the petrous apex and the cavernous sinus; or laterally, to the hyPotymPanum and middle ear. Class C tumors are further subdivided according to the degree of erosion of the carotid canal. The C1 tumor erodes the carotid foramen without involvement of the carotid artery.

Figure 11.4 The class C2 tumor erodes the vertical carotid canal up to the carotid genu.

Tympanic Membrane

Figure 11.5 The class C3 tumor involves the horizontal segment of the carotid.

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