The left adrenal gland is frequently crescent-shaped.
The left adrenal gland often extends relatively far downward toward the renal hilum.
The adrenal gland is seen to consist of three layers: two echodense outer layers and a hypoechoic middle layer.
The adrenal cortex is hypoechoic, and the medulla is hyperechoic.
Upper Abdominal Transverse Scans of the Gastric Cardia from Above Downward
191 Esophagus, aorta, liver
192 Cardia, aorta, liver
193 Cardia, body of stomach, aorta, liver
194 Body of stomach, aorta, liver
Upper Abdominal Longitudinal Scans of the Stomach from Right to Left
195 Esophagus, aorta, liver
196 Esophagus, aorta, liver
197 Cardia, liver
198 Body of stomach, liver
Upper Abdominal Longitudinal Scans of the Stomach from Left to Right
199 Body of stomach, liver
200 Antrum, liver, pancreas
201 Antrum, liver, pancreas
202 Pylorus, pancreas, liver
203 Duodenal bulb, liver, vena cava
204 Duodenum, gallbladder, vena cava
Upper Abdominal Transverse Scans of the Antrum and Duodenum from Above Downward
205 Antrum, liver, pancreas
206 Antrum, duodenum, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
207 Antrum, duodenum, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
208 Antrum, gallbladder
Details of the Stomach
209 Layers of gastric wall
210 Layers of gastric wall
211 Gastric folds
212 Gastric folds
The gastroesophageal junction is identified between the liver, aorta, and diaphragmatic crura.
The cardia displays a typical pointed, triangular shape in transverse section.
The cardia adjoins the body of the stomach, which presents a seemingly chaotic pattern of solid, liquid, and gaseous contents.
Below the cardia, the body of the stomach lies against the aorta.
A 22 \
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The abdominal esophagus is identified just anterior and to the right of the aorta.
The esophagus and the cardia are located between the liver and aorta in the upper abdominal longitudinal scan.
The first step in identifying the cardia and body of the stomach is to demonstrate the gastroesophageal junction.
Without special patient preparation, the body of the stomach produces a heterogeneous echo pattern posterior to the left lobe of the liver.
The body of the stomach is consistently located behind the left lobe of the liver. It may be fluid-filled and clearly defined, or empty and difficult to identify.
A longitudinal scan through the upper midabdomen demonstrates the characteristic triad of stomach, liver, and pancreas.
► 202 Pylorus, pancreas, liver
The pylorus is characterized by a marked thickening of the muscular coat anterior to the head of the pancreas.
The duodenal bulb runs laterally upward and backward before joining the second part of the duodenum.
The second part of the duodenum is displayed posterior to the gallbladder.
The pancreas lies against the posterior surface of the stomach.
The antrum extends to the right, coming between the pancreas and liver. It is difficult to visualize at that location.
The second part of the duodenum lies between the liver, gallbladder, vena cava, and head of pancreas.
The antrum often extends quite far downward, especially when the stomach is full and the subject is standing upright.
With a high-resolution device and favorable scanning conditions, five layers can be distinguished in the gastric wall.
A scan through the antrum is best for differentiating the layers of the gastric wall.
The rugal folds of the stomach are demonstrated most clearly in the fasted state.
In an upper abdominal transverse scan, the gastric folds produce a confusing pattern in which numerous wall layers are seen.
213 Bladder, prostate, rectum
214 Bladder, ureteral orifice, prostate, rectum
215 Bladder, rectum
216 Bladder, bowel
Details of the Bladder
217 Bladder, ureteral orifices
218 Bladder, inflow of urine
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