Atypical Urothelial Cells Indeterminate for Neoplasia

Urine Cytology Low Grade Carcinoma

Unfortuntely, as in every other body site, cytologic samples from the urinary tract are not always readily placed into distinct categories. An atypical interpretation is appropriate when morphologic changes exceed those described as benign cellular changes, but lack clear signs of neoplasia Figs. 2.7, 2.15, 2.33 . This is generally encountered when dealing with a sample from a patient with a low grade lesion, especially those called low malignant potential LMP , or in the presence of severe...

Normal Urothelial Histology and Cytology

Urine Cytology Umbrella Cell

The majority of the collecting system is lined by urothelium transitional epithelium . Variable areas of the bladder and urethra may be lined by glandular epithelium simple columnar , especially in the trigone and the dome of the bladder the vestigial urachus pa-raurethral glands, which provide lubrication for the urethra, might also be a source of glandular epithelium from that area. Cystitis cystica or glandularis, arising in Brunn's nests in the bladder mucosa, may shed groups of atypical...

Glandular Cells In Ureteral Washing

Atypical Glandular Cells Cervix

Size limits of this volume preclude a complete description of the various uncommon lesions of the urinary tract. The interested reader is referred to the classic texts of Koss, and other books relative to urinary cytology. Squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are infrequent cancers in the bladder, but have the same characteristics as those lesions elsewhere in the body Figs. 5.1-5.3 . The microscopist should resist the temptation to call a urothelial lesion squamous or glandular when areas of...

Mimics of High Grade Carcinoma Table 7 Polyoma Virus Figs 344352

Urothelial Cells Urine

The most frequently encountered cellular mimic of high grade urothelial carcinoma is produced by infection with polyoma BK virus. Infection can occur in otherwise healthy people, but more commonly is seen in immunocompromised patients, especially renal transplant and HIV infected individuals. When the virus infects patients with high grade bladder cancer, the diagnosis of both or either can be extremely difficult. If the sample is heavily populated with apparently infected cells and cancer...