Despite widespread acceptance that dietary fiber intakes are too low and need to be approximately doubled, little progress has been seen in increasing dietary fiber consumption in this country. Dietary fiber intake has been estimated at about 12 grams per day in the United States. A recent study found no increase in dietary fiber consumption despite widespread nutrition education efforts to increase dietary fiber consumption (12). A recent technical report on modeling nutrition intake by the USDA's Economic Research Service found that nutritional education strategies emphasizing general attitudinal messages such as five-a-day intake are likely to have greater effect in modifying dietary patterns than strategies emphasizing specialized knowledge about the nutrient content of foods. Higher intakes of dietary fiber consumption were also linked to years of formal education and consumption of a vegetarian diet.
Hostmark et al. (45) observed that in nonvegetarians who consumed a typical vegetarian diet for three weeks, apart from a reduction of total cholesterol, the concentration of lipid peroxides in blood decreased significantly. This observation suggests that the antioxidant status in humans is influenced by dietary habits, and may explain why many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, rich in fiber and antioxi-dants, and mortality from CHD.
Deaths would result in the United States if dietary goals for cancer prevention such as increasing DF intake levels are not achieved (27). This could cost as much as 25 billion a year. Based on international correlation statistics, an inverse relationship has been found between fiber and fiber-containing foods and colon cancer risk (28, 29). After examination of all fiber sources, the Life Science Research Office (LSRO) (30) determined that the IDF-rich wheat bran most consistently reduced colon tumor incidence in animal models. Recurrence of precan-cerous polyp lesions in the rectum has also been shown to be lower with wheat bran in humans (31). Both IDF and SDF may reduce breast cancer risk by binding estrogen, a potent promoter, and thus preventing enterohepatic reabsorption and lowering circulating levels (32). Although increased DF intake seems to be beneficial in terms of cancer, there are concerns about impaired mineral availability. Examination of populations that consume much...
Lovage is native to southern Europe (a related plant, Ligusticum scoticum, grows wild in northern Britain and on the Atlantic coasts of North America). It was used by the Greeks and Romans to aid digestion. The seeds, leaves, and leafstems have a strong, earthy, celery flavor and are chiefly used to flavor soups and stews. It is particularly useful in vegetarian dishes, with rice, vegetable seasonings, and nut roasts. Its stems can be used in salads or candied like angelica. The seeds are used on bread or cheese biscuits.
Developing Countries and Vegetarian Diets Vegetarianism. Preformed vitamin A is found only in animal-derived food products. A clinical sign of vitamin A deficiency, night blindness, is prevalent in developing countries where animal and vitamin A-fortificd products arc not commonly available. Although caro-tcnoids such as p-carotcnc arc abundant in green leafy vegetables and certain fruits, because it takes 12 yig of dietary p-carotcnc to provide 1 rctinol activity equivalent (RAF) (as compared to previous recommendations where 1 jig of rctinol was thought to be provided by 6 yig of p-carotcnc NRC, 1989 and Table 4-3 ), a greater amount of fruits and vegetables than previously recommended arc required to meet the daily vitamin A requirement for vegetarians and those whose primary source of vitamin A is green leafy vegetables. Analyzing intakes of vitamin A and p-c.arotcnc and using an RAF of 12 yig for dietary p-carotcnc indicate that the RDA for vitamin A can be met by those consuming...
Highly nutritional, vegetarian dry food supplement comprising vegetable protein and lipid(s), psyllium husks as fibre and carbohydrate source. Known highly nutritional vegetarian dry food supplements (providing not more than 120 calories 15g) consisting of vegetable protein (I) (soy protein isolate and or brewer's yeast to give total protein content 35-65 by wt.), 10-20 by wt. total complex carbohydrate (II), at least 4 by wt. fibre (III), vegetable lipids (IV) (polyunsatd. vegetable oil or vegetable derived lecithin to give total lipid content 10-20 by wt.), and 5-20 by wt. total vitamins and minerals are improved by using psyllium husks as the sole source of (II) and (III).
The earliest primates, being small, most probably had a predominately insectivorous diet. Small mammals lose body heat more quickly than larger creatures, so they need a mainly carnivorous diet in order to maintain the higher metabolic rate required to compensate for this heat loss. Plant foods generally take longer to digest. Thus a mainly plant-based diet was only possible for primates who evolved to a size that limited their heat loss and thus reduced their metabolic rate. The underlying factor here is that an exclusively, or predominantly, vegetarian diet can place a huge burden on animals whose habitat and particular digestive system limit the edible plant foods available to them. Climate and seasonality can both compound the problem. Once the early primates migrated to more temperate climes, suitable plants for primates' diets were both in short supply and often widely dispersed this was especially so at certain times of the year.
Especially in temperate countries or in vegetarian dishes. Others had up to 12 spices. In 10 countries, Ethiopia, Kenya, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, and Thailand, every meat-based recipe required at least one spice. In Scandinavia, one-third of the recipes had no spices. Vegetable dishes are almost always less spicy than meat dishes, a clue that leads Sherman and Hash (2001) to argue that the spices evolved as antimicrobial agents. I agree.
Recently, a renewed interest in flavonoids has been fuelled by the antioxidant and oestrogenic effects ascribed to them. This has led to their proposed use as anticarcino-gens and cardioprotective agents, prompting a dramatic increase in their consumption as dietary supplements. Unfortunately, the potentially toxic effects of excessive flavonoid intake are largely ignored. At higher doses, flavonoids may act as mutagens, pro-oxidants that generate free radicals, and as inhibitors of key enzymes involved in hormone metabolism. Thus, in high doses, the adverse effects of flavonoids may outweigh their beneficial ones, and caution should be exercised in ingesting them at levels above that which would be obtained from a typical vegetarian diet. The unborn fetus may be especially at risk, since flavonoids readily cross the placenta. More research on the toxicological properties of flavonoids is warranted, given their increasing levels of consumption (Skibola and Smith, 2000).
Applied to health promotion, social marketing requires program planners to provide products and services that are acceptable to the community. Products may include vegetarian cookbooks or pamphlets with the basic food guide information. Services may include the development of nutrition education programs and cooking classes.
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