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The 3 Week Diet

3 Week Diet is a program that covers the weight loss trifecta of dieting, exercise, and motivation and is intended to produce extremely quick fat loss results, guaranteeing to shed off 12 to 23 pounds in only 21 days. Expect this program to change your eating habits, teach you to follow a strict eating program that restricts carbohydrates while utilizing strategic protein consumption, go on an exercise habit, and keep a close eye on your progress. Brian Flatt who is health coach and nutritionist discovered these quick weight loss secrets after 12 years of research. Lots of people successfully burn fat with the help of these secrets. The main secret behind this program is signaling body to burn stored fat for energy and then creating starvation mode into the body. When body enters into starvation mode then body will burn stored fat for fueling liver, heart and other organs of the body. This is completely safe, natural and scientific proved weight loss technique. More here...

The 3 Week Diet Overview

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My The 3 Week Diet Review

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I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Dietary Guidance For Carbohydrates

Dietary guidance for consumption of carbohydrates has resembled laboratory analysis of carbohydrates take away the fat and protein and the remainder must to be carbohydrate. Nutritionists generally accept the fact that humans don't need more than 10-12 of kilocalories from protein, and less than 30 of kilocalories from fat. Subsequently, intake of carbohydrate should be 55 of kilocalories or more. Human diets historically have contained 40-80 of their energy as carbohydrate (5), although as income increases, so does the fat content of the diet while the carbohydrate content of the diet, especially the starch, decreases. More specific recommendations for carbohydrate have become more likely in dietary guidance. In the 1980s the number of recommendations for carbohy- g differences among sugars are not great. The Dietary Goals for the United States

Dietary Guidance For Dietary Fiber

Dietary guidance recommendations generally agree that Americans should increase their consumption of dietary fiber. For example, Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends choose a diet with plenty of vegetables, fruits, and grain products. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th edition, suggests we . . . achieve a desirable fiber intake by consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Other general recommendations for increased dietary fiber intake are given in the Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health (7) and Diet and Health, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences(8). Specific recommendations for dietary fiber intake are offered by some organizations. In Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber, Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the recommendation is to consume a wide variety of whole-grain products, fruits, and vegetables, leading to a dietary fiber intake...

Dietary Guidance For Complex Carbohydrates

Resistant starch is probably metabolized similar to some dietary fiber components in the gut. Thus, it appears that complex carbohydrate should contain both dietary fiber and starches and we must recognize that substances (such as phytate, phenolic compounds) and micronutrents (such as zinc and magnesium) are important nutritional components associated with complex carbohydrates. Dietary recommendations to increase intake of complex carbohydrate assume that Most dietary guidance is offered as a general endorsement of starches and complex carbohydrate to replace dietary fat. For example the U. S. Department of Agriculture food pyramid recommends 6-11 servings from the grain group, 3-5 servings from the vegetable group, and 2-4 servings from the fruit group (1). Such a diet would contain significantly more complex carbohydrate than the typical American diet. Dietary Guidelines for Americans also support increased intake of starch and dietary fiber in the form of bread, cereal, rice,...

The Food Label And Dietary Guidelines

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans which is issued every five years jointly by the Departments of Health and Human Services and of Agriculture represent fundamental, federal government public health policy. The fourth edition of the Dietary Guidelines recognizes the food label, especially the new Nutrition Facts label, along with the Food Guide Pyramid as the educational tools American consumers should use to put the Dietary Guidelines into practice. Consumers are advised to use the Nutrition Facts Label to choose a healthful diet (1, page 4). The same guidelines advise Americans to choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits . because they provide complex carbohydrates (1, page 22). However, for the nutrient complex carbohydrates the food label is not a very useful tool because complex carbohydrates do not appear in the Nutrition Facts panel. This has been the case since the issuance of the first edition of the Dietary Guidelines in 1980. The first edition...

Definitions of dietary supplements

The DSHEA defines dietary supplements for regulatory purpose within the United States. The Office of Dietary Supplements at the NIH needed to implement research priorities using this definition and yet in some manner group the wide array of supplement ingredients available in the marketplace into more manageable categories. A definition was needed that also could be interpreted more readily in terms of research projects. An operating definition was requested in meetings with the NIH Institute Directors and other agencies who expressed difficulty in understating whether or not specific ingredients would be supported in the research and education programmes developed by the ODS. The resulting operating definition and categorization of dietary supplement ingredients was developed in collaboration with the staff of the Office of Special Nutritionals at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who had oversight for dietary supplement regulatory affairs, and a large group of ad hoc advisers...

The Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health

The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) was authorized at the NIH as part of the DSHEA legislation. This office was formally started in late 1995 with the mandate to serve as a source of research support, inter-government advice, and science-based information on dietary supplements. The ODS has worked extensively with the other NIH institutes, centres and offices to partner in identifying the most fruitful areas for research in dietary supplements and to serve as a source of information for scientists, industry and the public. While the Congressional mandate for the ODS was specified broadly, the office staff needed to take this mandate and transform it into specific achievable goals and objectives. In order to do this, the office assembled over 125 scientists and professionals from academia, government, industry and public-interest groups and held a series of seven strategic planning meetings in autumn and winter 1996 1997. Different individuals were involved in each of the seven...

Dietary Fiber And Antioxidants

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the role of dietary antioxidants (particularly vitamin E, carotenoids and vitamin C) in counteracting the formation of lipid peroxides and oxidative modifications of LDLs, which play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary fiber binds bile acids and increases formation of micelles in the intestinal lumen. It may lead to decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. In experiments on the influence of dietary fiber components on absorption of vitamin A and P-carotene in animals, conflicting results were obtained (43, 44). It should be mentioned, however, that diets rich in plant foods and high in fiber are also rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids and other phenolic compounds such as tannins with high antioxidative properties. If dietary fibers were to suppress the absorption of dietary antioxidants, such action of fiber would be compensated by a simultaneous rise...

What Is Dietary Fiber

Dietary Fiber Intake suiting physiological actions similar to other DF components are fully proven. It should be emphasized that most of the foods in today's market do not contain resistant oligosaccharides, except a few formulations using resistant oligosaccharides as ingredients. Thus this new definition would not affect the DF values of most food products. Nevertheless, the inclusion of resistant oligosaccharides would allow new product development efforts as well as nutrition research to more actively evolve. Subsequently, analytical methodology should be fine tuned to fully recover these resistant oligosaccharides as well as resistant starch in the DF analysis. Until a reliable methodology is developed to meet this new definition, current DF methods should continue to be used for DF labeling and dietary assessment studies (5).

Analytical Methods For Dietary Fiber

Dietary fiber analysis can be subdivided into gravimetric and component analysis procedures. Gravimetric methods are simpler and faster than component analysis methods but are limited to estimates of total dietary fiber (TDF) or soluble (SDF) and insoluble (IDF) components. Conversely, component analysis allows for the determination of individual sugars, both neutral and acidic (i.e. uronic acids), as well as a separate estimation for lignin in some cases. The TDF content can then be calculated as the sum of these components. A drawback of component analysis is that the procedures are longer and more complex, rendering them less suitable for routine dietary analysis. Table 1 summarizes the methods that have been collaboratively studied and used in the development of fiber tables.

Recommendations For Dietary Fiber Intake Levels

The health beneficial effects of a dietary recommendation should also outweigh potential deleterious consequences. Using the estimation that 35 of all cancer cases are attributable to diet, 315,000 new cancer cases or 166,000 cancer deaths would result in the United States if dietary goals for cancer prevention such as increasing DF intake levels are not achieved (27). This could cost as much as 25 billion a year. Based on international correlation statistics, an inverse relationship has been found between fiber and fiber-containing foods and colon cancer risk (28, 29). After examination of all fiber sources, the Life Science Research Office (LSRO) (30) determined that the IDF-rich wheat bran most consistently reduced colon tumor incidence in animal models. Recurrence of precan-cerous polyp lesions in the rectum has also been shown to be lower with wheat bran in humans (31). Both IDF and SDF may reduce breast cancer risk by binding estrogen, a potent promoter, and thus preventing...

Problems In Assessing Dietary Fiber Intakes

One of the difficulties encountered in making specific recommendations for DF intake is in assessing the current intake levels. Variability in estimated DF intakes can be attributed in part to the type of dietary assessment and method of fiber analysis utilized. There are three main methods for obtaining dietary data (1) food balance (e.g. per capita disappearance) statistics (2) household food surveys and (3) studies of individuals (42). Dietary data obtained from food balance statistics tend to overestimate actual consumption by individuals (42, 43). Household food survey data need to be corrected for food waste, consumption of meals outside the home, locally grown produce, and household size and composition (42). Studies on individuals, which are probably more representative than the other two techniques, use a variety of methods to assess intake 24-h recall, food frequency questionnaires, and food records for varying periods which may or may not include weighing of food consumed....

Approach For Setting Dietary Reference Intakes

The scientific data used to develop Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have come from observational and experimental studies. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals were the principal source of data. Life stage and gender were considered to the extent possible, but the data did not provide a basis for proposing different requirements for men and for nonpregnant and nonlactating women in different age groups for many of the micronutrients. Two of the categories of reference values the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) are defined by specific criteria of nutrient adequacy the third, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), is defined by a specific end-point of adverse effect, when one is available. In all cases, data were examined closely to determine whether a functional endpoint could Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Niclccl, Silicon, Vanadium, and

How to Determine Your Ideal Weight

Check the following weight-for-height table to find out if your weight falls into the healthy range. Look up your height on the left side of the table, and move across the table to find your weight. If your weight is not in the healthy range for your height, you are more likely to develop weight-related health problems. Healthy Weight Ranges for Men Maintaining a Healthy Weight Weights above these ranges are less healthy for most people. The farther you are above the healthy weight range for your height, the higher your risk of weight-related health problems. A weight slightly below the range may be healthy for some people but sometimes results from health problems, especially when weight loss is unintentional.

The Health Risks of Being Overweight or Underweight

More than half of all American men are overweight, and a third of all American men are obese (weigh more than 20 percent more than their ideal body weight). Being overweight is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. Even a small reduction as little as 10 percent in body weight can decrease your chances of developing the most common chronic disorders as you get older. If you already have a health problem, losing weight can help you manage your condition. In some disorders, such as diabetes, weight loss can help reduce and even eliminate the need for medication. 70 pressure, and stroke if you keep your weight within a healthy range. However, Healthy where your body stores fat. If you are like most men, your body stores fat around the abdomen, and a large amount of abdominal fat raises your likelihood of developing heart disease and diabetes. Regular aerobic exercise (see page 56)...

Losing Weight Sensibly

Many overweight men have tried dieting and exercising to lose weight, with only modest success. Backsliding is easy, especially during the holidays or on special occasions. Successful weight loss depends on setting attainable goals and having reasonable expectations of meeting them. Losing 10 percent of your total body weight is an example of a sensible goal that you will be likely to reach. The sense of accomplishment that you feel will encourage you to keep the weight off and lose more if you desire. Most people should lose weight gradually a rate of 2 pounds per week is about right. If you have a serious weight-related health problem that requires you to lose weight faster, do so only under your doctor's supervision. How much you weigh is determined by a number of factors, including the amount and type of food you eat, whether you exercise, whether you eat in response to stress, your genetic makeup, your age, and your health. If you want to lose pounds and maintain a reasonable...

International Survey Results on Dietary Fiber Definition

If the definition of complex carbohydrates is to include dietary fiber, results of two prior international surveys on fiber should be of major interest (11). One respondents generally supported the definition of dietary fiber as those polysac-charides and lignin that are not hydrolyzed by the human alimentary enzymes. According to this definition, dietary fiber would include non-soluble polysaccha- supported the idea that the definition of dietary fiber be expanded to include ROs, unavailable polysaccharides, resistant starch and lignin. Table 4 Answers to Question How would you define dietary fiber (Check only one.)a Table 4 Answers to Question How would you define dietary fiber (Check only one.)a inclusion of ROs in the definition of dietary fiber. Respondents cited the following reasons to include ROs in the definition (1) ROs are difficult to distinguish from the non-hydrolyzable polysaccharides, whether they are part of the total dietary fiber or the soluble dietary fiber...

Using Dietary Reference Intakes To Assess Nutrient Intakes Of Groups

Suggested uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) appear in Box S-2. The transition from using previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) to using each of the DRIs appropriately will require time and effort by health professionals and others. For statistical reasons that arc addressed in the report Dietary TABLE S-7 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Manganese by Life Stage Group

Other Dietary Considerations in MS

Several other dietary factors should be kept in mind. Alcohol may, over the short-term, produce or worsen fatigue, bladder problems, walking difficulty, or clumsiness in the arms and legs. Grapefruit juice may increase the effects of many medications, including some that are commonly used for MS diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), sildenafil (Viagra), and sertraline (Zoloft). If a specific diet is followed, it is important to always maintain a well-balanced intake of nutrients. Some of the more extreme dietary approaches that focus on one specific aspect of the diet may actually create problems by causing nutrient deficiencies.

Use Of Hpaepad In Method Development For Dietary Fiber Determination

HPAE-PAD is proving to be valuable not only for the final determination of neutral sugars and uronic acids for nutritional labeling, but also in development of the methodology. The accuracy of dietary fiber determinations depends on the efficacy of the hydrolysis procedures used whether they be enzymatic or chemical. Fahey et al. have used HPAE-PAD to compare hydrolysis procedures for dietary fiber (21). Englyst et al. have also used HPAE-PAD to compare the rela- S

Definition Of Dietary Fiber

The above examples show that we need to take into account the botanical structure of the cell walls in our foods This structure plays an essential role in the physiological effects of dietary fiber. At this time, the notion of integrity of the botanical structure is not accounted for in the term ''complex carbohydrates'' and also, by present definitions, the term ''dietary fiber'' fails to fully acknowledge its importance. Because analysis of dietary fiber tells nothing about the origin of a sample or the integrity of its structure, clearly the methods alone cannot be used to define dietary fiber. It appears that the way to take structural integrity into account is to refer to it specifically in the definition of dietary fiber. Therefore, in order to be included in the definition of dietary fiber, a food material should be required to meet the three following conditions 3. It should be measurable by current official dietary fiber methods (with corrections, when needed). Definition and...

Dietary Fiber Sources And Properties Composition of Dietary Fiber

The factors affecting fiber functionality are complex (Table 2). Dietary fiber is a heterogeneous mixture of materials that are the structural and some of the non-structural components of all plants. These components are resistant to digestion by enzymes produced by humans. The components of dietary fiber include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignins, pectins, and a variety of gums and mucilages. All except lignins are polysaccharides. The composition of dietary fiber components varies with the type and maturity of plant tissue. Effects of isolated dietary fibers g dietary fiber is the primary reason for the diversity of its functional properties acid), cell wall matrix characteristics, functional groups, surface area, cellulose crystallinity, surface characteristics, ionic linkages, noncovalent bonds, and structure (e.g., glycosidic linkages and degree of branching). Food uses of dietary fiber range from bulking agents to fat substitutes (Table 3).

Parameters For Dietary Reference Intakes

Using the infant fed human milk as a model is in keeping with the basis for estimating nutrient allowances of infants developed in the last Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) (NRC, 1989) and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) (Health Canada, 1990) reports. It also supports the recommendation that exclusive human milk feeding is the preferred method of feeding for normal full-term infants for the first 4 to 6 months of life. This recommendation has also been made by the Canadian Pacdiatric. Society (Health Canada, 1990), the American Acadcmy of Pediatrics (AAP, 1997) and in the Food and Nutrition Board report Nutrition During lactation (IOM, 1991). In general, for this report special consideration was not given to possible variations in physiological need during the first month after birth or to the variations in intake of nutrients from human milk that result from differences in milk volume and nutrient concentration during early lactation. Specific. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)...

Dietary Intakes In The United States And Canada

Sources of Dietary Intake Data The major sources of current dietary intake data for the U.S. population arc the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), which was conducted from 1988 to 1994 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Continuing Survey of Eood Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), which was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from 1994 to 1996. NHANES III examined 30,000 subjects aged 2 months and older. A single 24-hour diet recall was collected for all subjects. A second rccall was collected for a 5 percent nonrandom subsamplc to allow adjustment of intake estimates for day-to-day variation. The 1994 to 1996 CSFII collected two nonconsccutivc 24-hour recalls from approximately 16,000 subjects of all ages. Both surveys used the food composition database developed by USDA to calculate nutrient intakes (Pcrloff ct al., 1990) and were adjusted by the method of Nusscr ct al. (1996). For boron, which is not...

Inulin And Oligofructose Dietary Fibers

In this chapter, I would summarize that both inulin and oligofructose are indigestible, have significant 'dietary fiber effects' often comparable to pectins, are carbohydrates of plant origin, naturally occurring in significant amounts and show beneficial effects on the gut flora. For these properties, no significant differences have been found between inulin and oligofructose. ent inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber for labeling purposes from a nutritional viewpoint. This classification has been proposed by many authors (3-9). Often it is questioned whether indigestible oligosaccharides should not be excluded from the dietary fiber group. The 'cutting point' could lie at DP 10. However such a distinction would be very artificial. There are no nutritional grounds which would allow one to state that oligosaccharides with a DP of 9 would not be fibers, while those with the same structure but a DP of 11 would. Dietary fiber effects are not limited by the DP of the molecules. It is...

Dietary factors and the risk of cancer

At present, much is known about the role of food intake in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between the intake of saturated fatty acids and the occurrence of ischemic heart diseases, for example, is now generally recognized. However, the role of food components in the induction of various types of cancer is less clear, although it is beyond doubt that dietary factors do play an important role. The types of cancer frequently occurring differ from one country to another. In Japan, cancer of the stomach occurs more often than in the US or Europe, while the incidence of breast and colon cancer is higher in the US and Europe than in Japan. The fact that in Japanese people who migrated to the US, the incidence of stomach cancer decreased whereas the incidence of breast and colon cancer increased, suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors are important. As far as the role of dietary factors in the etiology of cancer is concerned, laypersons mostly think that...

Dietary Fiber Definition

''Fiber'' or ''dietary fiber'' (DF) is a variety of complex organic substances each having unique physical and chemical properties which in turn determine their physiological effect. Plant cell wall material containing cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin substances and lignin are major sources of DF. Additionally, mucilages, gums, algal and synthetic polysaccharides behave as DF. With the exception of lignin, dietary fibers are carbohydrates, and it has been suggested that the measurement of nonstarch polysaccharides is more accurate than determination of DF (22). On the other hand, it has been proposed that starch not digested in the small intestine and reaching the colon (i.e., resistant starch (RS)) is chemically and physically similar to other nondigestible polysaccharides and should therefore be included in the definition of DF (23). This definition describes polysaccharides and RS as a fiber by the AOAC assay (see later section). There are a number of definitions for ''fiber'' or...

Obesity and Nutritional Intake

Obesity, in general, is associated with decreased adiponectin expression in adipose tissue and plasma levels (7,13). In both men and women, overall obesity, assessed by parameters such as body mass index (BMI) and fat mass, is negatively correlated to adiponectin, although prolonged weight reduction leads to increased adiponectin levels (7,14-17). Nutritional intake does not seem to explain this relationship. Although fasting decreases adiponectin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in mice, serum levels remain unchanged (18). In humans, short-term fasting also does not change plasma levels of adiponectin, although prolonged caloric restriction does result in weight loss and increased adiponectin levels (14,19). Additionally, daily caloric intake, macronutrient intake, or a high-fat meal is not related to any immediate change in circulating adiponectin levels in humans except possibly in obese individuals (20-22).

Dietary Reference Intakes

Dietary or Supplemental Vitamin A (1 xg) Dietary -carotene (12 Dietary ra-carotene or -cryptoxanthin (24 jg) 6 M-g of dietary all-iraw.s- -carolerie 12 (J.g of other dietary provitamin A carotenoids 12 J.g of dietary all-ir-ans- -caroleiie 24 ig of other dietary provitamin A carotenoids The use of j.g RAE rather than ag RE or international units (IU) is preferred when calculating and reporting the amount of the total vitamin A in mixed foods or assessing the amount of dietary and supplemental vitamin A consumed. Given the need to be able to calculate the intake of carotenoids, food composition data tables should report food content in amounts of each carotcnoid whenever possible. The hepatic, vitamin A concentration can vary markedly depending on dietary intake. When vitamin A intake is adequate, over 90 percent of total body vitamin A is located in the liver (Raica ct al., 1972) as retinyl ester (Schindlcr ct al., 1988), where it is concentrated in the lipid droplets of...

Jeltema M.a. 1983 Predication Of Cookies Quality From Dietary Fiber Components Cereal Chem. 60 3 227-230.

Minor constituents of wheat flour the pentosans. American Association of Cereal Cheimists. 1987. Dietary fiber guide. Cereal Foods World. 32(8) 555-570. Anderson, J. W. and Bridges, S. R. 1988. Dietary fiber content of selected foods. Am. J. Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam. p. 249. Barber, S. and benedito De Barber, C. 1980. Rice bran chemistry and technology. Rice Production & Utilization. B.S. Luh (Ed). AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut. pp. 809-817. Becker, A. J., Egan, J. E., and Medri, M. 1987. Snack food product with high dietary fiber content and process for producing the same. Warner-Lambert Co., U.S. Patent 4,673,578. biscuits. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 69 50-55. Burge, R. M. and Duensing, W. J. 1989. Processing and dietary fiber ingredient applications of corn bran. Cereal Foods World. 34(7) 535-538. Bushuk, W. 1966. Distribution of water in dough and bread. Bakers Digest. 40(5) 38. properties of...

Dietary supplements of plant origin

Epidemiology suggests that cancer is largely an unavoidable disease and that more than two-thirds of cancers might be prevented through lifestyle modification (Ferguson, 1999). According to some authors the four main causes of cancer deaths are smoking, diet, chronic infections (especially in developing countries) and hormonal factors (Ames and Gold, 1998). One of the major influences on cancer risk appears to be diet. Dietary imbalances are important especially the lack of sufficient amounts of dietary fruits and vegetables (Ames and Gold, 1997). Despite disagreement between different authors on details, there is agreement on the considerable number of modifying factors in the carcinogenic process and that there are very good prospects for dietary interventions (Ferguson, 1999). Epidemiological studies, supported by preclinical data from animal and in vitro experiments and by clinical findings, have contributed immensely in providing insights into links between diet and cancer...

Hydrocolloid Low Calorie Foods Satiety Weight Control

Low calorie liq. food for patients having obesity or diabetes mellitus contains pectin with specific degree of esterification, gels at pH less than 3, has good taste and long retention time in stomach. Patent Assignee TERUMO CORP (TERU) Number of Countries 001 Number of Patents 001 Patent No Kind Date Applicat No Kind Date Main IPC Week JP 6030729 A 19940208 JP 92192491 A 19920720 A23L-001 307 199410 B Abstract (Basic) JP 6030729 A USE As a low calorie food, for preventing obese patients from overeating and protecting patients of diabetes mellitus from abrupt increase in blood glucose values. It has a good taste and a long retention time in the human stomach.

Obesity Overweight and Metabolic Syndrome

Obesity has been described as one of the modern epidemics. The numbers that support this argument are real and staggering. Since 1991, the prevalence of obesity has increased 75 and has been observed in every ethnic group.1 The direct and indirect costs of obesity-related diseases has been estimated to be over 100 billion annually. Perhaps the most alarming statistic relative to obesity is the magnitude of the increase in children. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of overweight and obese children has increased fourfold and currently has extended to preschool children where over 10 of children 2-5 years old are overweight.1 Factors responsible for this alarming increase in obesity include alterations in diet and nutrition and physical inactivity, both of which are also risk factors for CVD. Obesity not only increases the risk for the development of CVD but also for the development of type 2 diabetes. Thus, the risk factors for CVD can actually synergize with each other and produce...

Education as a method of dietary behavioral change

In health education, messages' explicit conclusions are often more effective than implicit conclusions. The more a message is repeated, the more effectively it is received. After three times, however, repetition may no longer be effective, or may even lead to opposite effects. New and valid arguments may change someone's attitude, but information about the opinions and behaviors of others may also contribute to changes in attitude and perceptions of social standards. The discrepancy between the position of the source regarding the issue at hand, and the position of the receiver should not be too large, especially in the case of high involvement of the receiver in the issue under consideration. Improvement of self-efficacy by giving specific instructions is important, particularly in the case of fear-arousing messages (e.g., about the relationship between diet and cancer). An individual's efforts and perseverance in attaining a behavioral change are stimulated if a...

Perspectives on Dietary Fiber Definition

Consumer interest and public policy on dietary fiber has recently changed. The definition and method for determination of dietary fiber have evolved in Western countries over the past two decades. In the United States, the Food and Drug Amdinistration (FDA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued final food labeling regulations in January 1993 (1,2). The regulations have mandated the labeling of dietary fiber with optional breakdown of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber on food packages. For nutritional labeling, AACC Methods 32-05 (corresponding to AOAC Method 985.29) and 32-07 (AOAC Method 991.43) (3-5) have been recommended for dietary fiber analysis by both agencies (1,2). Europe, the protocols for dietary fiber labeling are still being developed for the European common market. common understanding of the definition of dietary fiber. The analytical methodol- Thus, we conducted two international surveys to determine wether a con-senusus could be reached on the definition...

Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) comprise a set of nutrient-based reference values, each of which has special uses. The development of DRIs expands on the periodic reports, Recommended Dietary Alloxv-ances, which have been published since 1941 by the National Academy of Sciences and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes of Canada. This comprehensive effort is being undertaken by the Standing Committee on the Scientific. Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies, with the active involvement of Health Canada. See Appendix A for a description of the overall process and its origins. WHAT ARE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES The reference values, collectively called the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). national Atomic Energy Agency (WHO FAO IAEA) Expert Consultation on Trace Elements...

Measurement Of Dietary Fiber By Nirs

Oat Nir Spectrum

While NIRS has been used to predict fiber in forages and grains (10, 35, 36, 37), its potential for the prediction of dietary fiber in foods has only begun to be explored. Table 1 lists the existing NIR dietary fiber studies with calibration and validation statistics. In 1983, Baker reported the prediction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in a variety of ground breakfast cereals using NIR reflectance data (24). NDF (38) includes insoluble polysaccharides plus lignin and approximates insoluble dietary fiber. Using a first derivative transformation of the data and stepwise multiple linear regression, an equation was obtained utilizing 4 wavelengths for determination of NDF. The equation was used to determine NDF content of samples in the sample prediction set. The resulting standard error of prediction was 1.8 NDF and y2 was 0.96 (Table 1). Several samples with high fat and sugar had increased absorbance at wavelengths characteristic for fat and sugar absorbance. However, these...

A brief overview of dietary supplement ingredient regulation in the United States

In 1994 the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, Public law 103-417, October 25, 1994, 103rd Congress). This law modified the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and expanded the definition of dietary supplements to include botanical ingredients, hormones, and a diverse array of related products in addition to vitamins and minerals. The DSHEA also specified the role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in regulating dietary supplements, mandated the creation of a Presidential Commission on Dietary Supplement Labeling, and authorized the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The main elements of the definition of dietary supplements from the DSHEA are listed in Box 1.1. For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no...

Dietary Treatment of the

In the past, the low albumin concentration in the serum and the pronounced loss of protein in the urine of patients with the nephrotic syndrome led nephrologists to advise a high dietary protein intake. In the mid-1980s, however, several reports appeared documenting that dietary protein restriction not only reduced urinary loss of protein, but in some cases led to an increase in serum albumin level. As yet, no explanation for this paradoxical effect has been proposed. (Note In these studies, most doctors used a low-protein diet instead of the supplemented very-low-protein diet that has been suggested in this book.) Here are some examples of people with the nephrotic syndrome who have responded to dietary treatment. The means by which protein restriction improves the nephrotic syndrome are unknown. It seems curious that dietary protein restriction does not reduce protein loss in the urine in patients who lose only moderate amounts. This is the exact opposite of conventional wisdom it...

Dietary Fiber Intake Levels Around The World

Dietary fiber intake levels in North America, the Asia-Pacific Region, and most industrialized nations in Europe are far below the recommended levels (Tables 9-11). In North America, usual intake levels of TDF are between 10 and 15 g d (Table 9). Estimates of DF intakes in Europe, mostly based on Southgate's unavailable CHO method, are in the range of 18-25 g d (Table 10). Two European studies, one in Italy (51) and one in the Netherlands (52), obtained much higher estimates of about 32 g d. In the U.K. and Scandinavia, NSP intakes range from 13-18 g d. Studies in Australia and New Zealand have found DF intake levels in the range of 18-20 g d (unavailable CHO) whereas countries like Japan and Korea are even lower at 10-17 g TDF d. However, South Asians who have immigrated to the U.K. were found to have much higher intake levels than the native British in one study (53). Dietary fiber consumption in Latin America are closer to recommended levels (20-23 g d) but still fall below...

Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Being overweight is a major health problem in the United States, and there are many good reasons to keep your weight within a healthy range. You will feel better, look better, and have more energy than men who are overweight. Having more energy makes you more likely to exercise, which can help you fall asleep faster and sleep more restfully. But the most important reason to keep your weight within a healthy range is that you will lower your risk for certain chronic diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. Doctors no longer believe that it is acceptable to gain a few pounds as you age. Maintaining your weight at a reasonable level throughout your life is key when it comes to reducing your risk for disease. Many overweight men have difficulty reaching their healthy body weight, and the more you weigh above your ideal weight, the harder it can be to lose the extra pounds. It is encouraging to learn, then, that losing even a relatively...

Internality Externality Hypothesis of Obesity

Foods respond more readily to partaking of these foods and eat more than the nonobese, especially if the food is tasty and tempting. This responsiveness, however, may be related to habits of dieting that obese people develop, either continual on-and-off dieting or refraining entirely from dieting.

Examples of biomarkers of dietary intake

The relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and plasma vitamin C concentration is more complex. At high intake levels, plasma vitamin C levels reach a maximum (Figure 15.2). In comparison to the number of nutrients and other substances in foods, the number of biomarkers for intake is still small. Therefore, further development of the application of biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology is needed. When validated, the use of biomarkers can contribute substantially to nutritional epidemiology. In the future, a dietary questionnaire or interview in combination with the use of biomarkers may appear to be an adequate way to measure exposure. For some nutrients or substances, a questionnaire may provide reliable data, while for others the measurement of biochemical parameters may be a better or the only way to obtain reliable information.

Sales and use of dietary supplements in the United States

The sale and use of dietary supplements in the United States initially grew dramatically after the passage of the DSHEA. Figures of individual and mixtures of botanical supplements drove the market. The growth and demand led to a consolidation of manufacturing and retail corporations as well as new growth in botanical supplements produced by the major pharmaceutical corporations in the US. It is estimated that from 30 53 per cent of Americans or 100 million people use dietary supplements on a regular basis (several times each week) (Aarts, 1998). In 1996 sales of dietary supplements totalled 9.8 billion and represented 51 per cent of the total sales in the nutrition industry in the United States. Sales of dietary supplements in natural food stores comprised 44 per cent of the total, and mass-market retail accounted for 26 per cent of the total with the remainder in direct marketing through the mail or Internet. Overall sales for dietary supplements grew 9 per cent in 1996 (Aarts,...

Analysis of dietary data

When associations between dietary intake and diseases are studied, it should be borne in mind that the intake levels of many nutrients are strongly related to each other. For instance, a diet with a relatively high fat content will automatically have a relatively low carbohydrate content (see Chapter 12). This may lead to the problem that it is hard to distinguish the effect of a high fat intake from the effect of a low carbohydrate intake.

Studies on determinants of dietary behavior

Research on determinants of dietary behavior is not as developed as research on other health behaviors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. There is no clear conceptual framework. The few studies carried out give an ad hoc impression. One of the possible explanations for this is the earlier-mentioned complexity of the concept of dietary behavior. In addition, until recently the knowledge acquired in studies of other health behaviors had not been applied to dietary behavior many studies on dietary behavior focus on just one determinant, such as knowledge and attitude. Also, many studies have been carried out on special subjects, such as athletes. Finally, it seems that a practical application of the study results (e.g., the study results in points of impact for an intervention) was not the leading motive among the majority of the researchers. Usually, the relationship with the problem is not clear. The results of several studies on the relationship between one or more of the...

Common Dietary Fiber Components And Sources

Numerous sources of dietary fibers are commercially available as supplements for use in foods such as bakery goods. Unfortunately, many of these sources result in gritty textures and degradation in functional properties when they are added to foods. One of the reasons for these functional problems is that these fiber sources tend to hydrate more completely on the particle surface than the particle interior, reducing the extent to which the particle can soften and swell in food systems such as dough and cake mixes. However, many of these functional problems can be overcome by modifying the source with chemical or physical treatments, selecting the appropriate source for a specific application, using the isolated fiber components, or blending different sources. Care must be taken to balance product functionality with potential health benefit. For example, oat hulls can be added to foods at high levels to add bulk and reduce calories but oat hulls contain no soluble beta-glucan that is...

Dietary Fiber Intake Recommendations in North America

Table 3 Dietary Recommendations Around the World-Grain-Based Foods* Dietary Fiber Intake (16) as suitable methodologies for the analysis of DF for nutrition labeling purposes. Professionals in the DF research field, however, strongly support the enzymatic-gravimetric technique as the most appropriate approach for nutrition labeling and quality control purposes (9). Thus, recommendations for DF intake in both the United States and Canada are generally based on the AOAC methods. Recommendations for DF intake in North America range from 25 to 35 g d. The U.S. FDA recommends that DF goals be based on a caloric basis (Table 2). General dietary recommendations by organizations in the U.S. and Canada are to increase intakes of grain products, fruits and vegetables which will increase overall DF intake if followed (Table 4). Recent U.S. recommendations for intakes of grain-based foods are at least 6 servings per day. In Canada, recommended intake levels of breads, cereals and other grain...

Dietary Guidance

Since the 1940s scientific bodies have met to discuss nutrition recommendations. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been developed to provide nutrient allowances for the maintenance of good health. These guidelines are most useful to health professionals in planning and evaluating diets. For consumers, more general nutrition education tools have been developed. Food groups, meal plans, or exchange lists are examples of food guides available to help consumers plan and prepare more nutritious meals. These tools have evolved and generally try to meet the need for a simple nutrition education system that still provides the nutritional detail needed. types that together provide a nutritionally satisfactory diet. Food guides are not dietary standards (such as the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the Dietary the Basic Four in the 1950s. In the 1970s the focus of dietary recommendations shifted to concerns about dietary excesses. The release of the Dietary Goals by a U. S. Senate...

Healthy Weight

Carrying excess weight is a known health risk. Excess weight increases the heart's workload and can raise your chances of getting a number of serious medical conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, adult-onset diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. It also can adversely affect your self-image and make it difficult to exercise. But how can you find out what is your ideal weight A healthy weight is actually a range of weight related to your height, but the number of pounds you register on your bathroom scale doesn't tell the whole story. Your body composition the percentage of your body that is made up of lean tissue, composed mainly of muscle and bone, or fat also is important. Your body composition is partly determined by your genetic makeup and partly by your activity level. The more fat you have in relation to lean tissue, the less healthy you are, but it is somewhat difficult to measure how much of your weight is made up of fat. The best way to judge the percentage...

As Dietary Fiber

Within the vast group of dietary carbohydrates (Table 1) the non-digestible oligo-saccharides belong to the class of compounds which resist digestion. The chicory Dietary fiber must be defined more as a concept rather than as a chemical (or an analytical) entity (30). Such a concept must include resistance to digestion as a key factor together with the saccharidic nature and the plant origin of the material. The term dietary fiber must therefore cover any plant's oligo- polysaccharides that resist hydrolysis in the human digestive tract and reach the colon where they can eventually be fermented. They belong to the group of co-lonic foods and, if selectively fermented by one or a limited number of colonic bacteria, become classified as prebiotics (24). From a conceptual perspective non-digestible oligosaccharides in general and chicory fructooligosaccharides in particular have to be classified as dietary fiber and they have to appear as such on nutrition labeling. From a nutritional...

Dietary Fiber

Dietary fiber is essentially dietary non-starch polysaccharides and cell wallassociated components such as lignin. The report of the Canadian Expert Committee (10) strongly emphasized that dietary fiber excludes polymers formed during food processing or preparation and that the labeling of dietary fiber content in a food has value only because certain physiological benefits are expected of fiber. To consider dietary fiber as complex carbohydrates also ignores the fact that the non-carbohydrate components participate in maintaining the botanical (plant cell wall) structure of dietary fiber and the structure of the food. The botanical structure and particle size may account for a significant proportion of the beneficial effects of dietary fiber on postprandial blood glucose response and intestinal function (11).

Wrong dietary habits

These are believed to be main causes for the nutrition-related disorders mentioned above. A more balanced diet means changes in dietary habits energy according to need, and less fat, cholesterol, salt, sugar, and alcohol, and more dietary fiber. Nutritionists and toxicolo-gists are well aware of the fact that for nutrients the margin between physiological need and safe dose is often very small. Large safety factors cannot be applied. More basic information on the physiology and toxicology of macro- and micronutrients is required. Such information may be used for recommendations aimed at changing dietary habits (see also Part 1B, and Part 3, Chapter 22).

Dietary Modification

Dietary information is reviewed with all patients to assist in improving bowel function. Patients are provided with written informational handouts regarding foods that are high in fiber or foods that stimulate or slow transit. Offering creative fiber alternatives, which may be more appealing for patients to easily incorporate in their daily diet regimen, assists with compliance. Such alternatives include unrefined wheat bran that can be easily mixed with a variety of foods, cereals, muffins, as well as over-the-counter bulking agents. Adequate fluid intake and limiting caffeine intake is essential for normal bowel and bladder function therefore, patients are encouraged to increase their fluid intake to 64 ounces per day unless otherwise prescribed by their physician.

Obesity

Lifestyle modifications are essential for successful treatment of obesity and T2DM. When weight loss is achieved and sustained, complications associated with obesity are reduced and T2DM can be prevented in high-risk individuals. The lack of a cost-effective, long-term means of achieving this goal is at the root of the current epidemics of these two diseases. Development of either non-pharmacological or pharmacological means of preventing or reducing obesity that can be maintained long term would have a profound impact on healthcare costs and the use of healthcare resources.

The chapters that follow

In 1994 or the establishment of the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP) in 1989. These scientists present a comprehensive view of the earlier and current approaches to studying plant-derived compounds that are used as dietary supplements. They also have placed their research into the worldwide perspective of plant biodiversity, ecology and the increasingly politically fraught arena of genetically modified foods. Dr Can Baser approaches dietary supplements of plant origin from the perspective of the plant industry in Chapter 4. He discusses the active compounds with potential health benefits in a number of food products such as soybeans, tomatoes, etc. In Chapter 5 Giovanni Appendino and Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati take what they describe as a 'pharmaceutical point of view' towards diet. In this carefully organized chapter Drs Appendino and Taglialetela-Scafati walk the reader through major developments in the scientific understanding of active pharmaceutical...

The situation in Europe

In Europe, dietary supplements account for 15 20 per cent of the herbal market. Although regulations vary from country to country, in Europe, herbal products are generally considered as medicines. Therefore, full registration with a full dossier on quality, safety and efficacy has to be submitted for pre-market approval. Bibliographic documentation can be based on clinical trials, and the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), World Health Organization (WHO), German Commission E and the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP). There is a simplified way of registering a herbal product as medicine with proof of efficacy based on long-term traditional use in countries like Germany, Austria, Belgium and France. In such a case, the medicine has to carry a disclaimer on the label stating that it is 'traditionally used' (Lawson and Bauer, 1998 Stott, 1998 Grunwald, 1999 Steinhoff, 2001). In short, the EU has, at present, no legislation like in the USA to regulate...

Main techniques employed by plant biotechnology

Plant secondary metabolism is very important in determining flower colour, flavour of food, and plant resistance against pests and diseases. Moreover, it is the source of many useful chemicals such as drugs, dyes, flavours and fragrances (Verpoorte et al., 1999, 2000), which are the main active constituents or at least simple components of most medicinal plants and herbal dietary supplements. Therefore, it is of interest to be able to engineer the secondary metabolite production of the plant cell factory, e.g. to produce more of a useful chemical, to produce less of a toxic compound, or even to make new compounds or valuable herbal products. Our limited knowledge of secondary metabolite pathways and the genes involved is one of the main bottlenecks (Verpoorte et al., 2000).

Druglike compounds from food plants and spices

Since nutritional research has traditionally focused on macronutrients (proteins, lipids, sugars) and essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), food plants have long been assumed to contain few if any secondary metabolites apart from those revealed by our senses and responsible for their taste and flavour. Over the past few decades, evidence has, however, been mounting that food plants also contain a host of secondary metabolites which, though generally undetected by our senses, can nevertheless contribute to human well-being and play a role in the maintenance of health (Pisha and Pezzuto, 1994). Evidence for the dietary intake of biologically active small molecules can be traced to two distinct lines of research, namely the study of the detrimental effects of the inordinately large consumption of single food plants, and the recognition that food and medicines can interact, sometimes with dramatic consequences. Research in these areas has always been intense, and recent...

Official information resources

The section on official sources of information includes reviews (monographs) by officially recognized experts on botanicals such as the United States Pharmacopoeia, World Health Organization Traditional Medicine Programme and the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. It also includes information resources from governmental organizations such as the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institute of Health.

Box 44 India Corrects a Food Bias

In 1994, in one state in India, a window of opportunity was seized by a team of three policy entrepreneurs well-versed in the UNICEF nutrition framework. Reinforced by a small network of strategic allies, and backed by the Secretary for Women and Children, their initiative led to a politically and nutritionally significant change in program policy. The window was created during the planning for the redesign of the national health and nutrition program, a program that has used supplementary feeding for decades and was, in the eyes of the secretary, ready for a change. With the UNICEF framework in mind, the core team highlighted the ages of 6 to 18 months as crucial to the incidence of growth failure, using recently collected Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data and promoting the childcare narrative contrary to the then-dominant food narrative. This evidence and narrative exerted significant influence in a series of consensus-building workshops in which participants from 10 states...

How Nutrition Improvesand What That Implies for Policy Decisions

Nutritionists generally believe that we have moved toward a better understanding of how to improve nutrition in poor countries over the past several decades. This understanding is based on country experiences with nutrition programs that often included external assistance. The uncertainty about our models of how nutrition improves is due to the serious lack of evaluation data. Thus the conclusions here and elsewhere are constructed from scattered clues. The issue of scope has not been fully resolved in this policy debate among the international agencies however, the focus has now swung back toward direct programs and diet quality, often with the emphasis on micronutrients, rather than protein. WHO support for primary health care (PHC), which gained momentum in the 1980s, involved many of the concepts for local action now considered important in community-level nutrition programs. Starting in the early 1990s with Investing in Health, these PHC programs were In practice, many nutrition...

Institutionalization of Nutrition

Tein Advisory Group, the issue of nutrition institutionalization first became a matter of public debate during the 1970s, with introduction of the concept of multisectoral nutrition planning. The period marked a reaction to the largely supply-oriented interventions of earlier periods, namely, home economics-oriented extension efforts, school feeding, nutrition rehabilitation, the development of special protein-rich foods, and the externally designed, FAO-assisted Applied Nutrition Programs. Critics of these early programs noted their low impact, their narrow health orientation, and that by and large they addressed nutrition as a somewhat weak form of welfare. They did not address the context and causality of malnutrition. What most concerned critics was the absence of the systematic (much less scientific) program planning that was being promoted broadly in other development sectors at the time. The critique was aimed in part at the institutionalization coming into prominence at that...

Biosynthesis Of Hypericin

Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first-line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine with effects similar to those of adrenaline it is produced by Ephedra (or ma huang), which has been used by the Chinese for at least 5,000 years. Ephedrine has resulted in deaths and hence is worrisome as an over-the-counter dietary supplement (Fillmore et al., 1999). Ephedrine has been described as a causative factor of vasculitis but myocarditis has not yet been associated with either ephedrine or its plant derivative ephedra (Zaacks et al, 1999). The content of ephedra alkaloids in herbal dietary supplements containing Ephedra (ma huang) has been studied by Gurley and co 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd Several food plants are cyanogenic, including white clover, flax, almonds, wild lima bean and, particularly, cassava. This last...

The example of St Johns wort

Increasing numbers of people are seeking symptomatic relief of psychiatric disorders by using dietary supplements. Since this is generally without medical supervision (Fugh-Berman and Cott, 1999 Wong et al., 1998), it is essential that clinicians avail themselves of the extensive literature available on natural products so that potential problems can be avoided. Herb drug interactions can be of two primary types pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Dynamic interactions are those having to do with the mechanism of action, e.g. where the drug's pharmacologic actions may be in opposition to or in addition to one another. Pharmacokinetic interactions are the result of alterations in the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of medications when given together with specific drugs, foods or supplements. Interactions between botanical products and prescribed medications could increase or decrease the action of the drug, though the majority of interactions are likely to go...

Transgenic crops for improved medicinal plants and pharmaceutical products

As discussed earlier, secondary metabolite pathways are complicated, since they require multiple enzymatic steps to the desired end-product used as therapeutic substance or dietary supplement and since these enzymatic pathways are under the control of multifactorial regulatory processes.

Concluding remarks

Our diet contains a host of secondary metabolites which can interact with important pharmacological targets, and for which biological activity can be demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo assays. The role of these interactions for human homeostasis is unknown, and the translation of dietary constituents into pharmaceutical leads is undoubtedly fraught with difficulties. Nevertheless, it is not unconceivable that in the near future progress in biomedical sciences will put us in the position to better evaluate the physiological role and pharmacological potential of the multitude of dietary chemicals which have challenged our homeostasis over the course of evolution. People in developed countries are expecting food to make them healthier, fending off the chronic diseases of ageing. This trend has led to the explosion of the functional food market, which is expected to constitute 10 per cent of the total food market in the USA (and presumably of other developed countries as well) by 2010...

Mainstream drugs from edible plants

The background 'pharmaceutical noise' of dietary origin Certain active pharmaceutical ingredients occur naturally in food plants and spices. With a few notable exceptions (statins, xanthines, capsaicinoids), the concentrations are very low and unlikely to exert any direct significant pharmacological activity. This background dietary 'pharmaceutical noise' can, however, become significant under particular conditions, especially in the realm of exposure to recreational drugs like tobacco and opioids. The interference of dietary nicotine (3a) in studies of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has long been debated. Nicotine is widely distributed, and has been found in twelve plant families, with detectable amounts in many food plants. Thus, levels up to 100 (xg kg have been measured in aubergines, and also non-solanaceous vegetables like cauliflower can accumulate nicotine (Domino et al, 1993). The dietary intake of nicotine is unlikely to produce any direct pharmacological or...

Conclusion

Dietary supplements in the United States include a wide array of ingredients and products that are broadly available in the marketplace. While these products are presented in formats that give the appearance of standard over-the-counter (OTC) medications such as aspirin, their manufacturers are not required to provide the same level of pre-market safety data as manufacturers of OTC products. Botanical supplements, in particular, are directly derived from wild, or in some cases, commercially grown plants and therefore are more subject to product variability due to plant contamination, and manufacturing and post-manufacturing variables that are currently not regulated. The United States and countries within Europe have widely differing approaches to regulation and marketing of dietary supplements of plant origin. While these aspects may differ, scientists worldwide share concern with the need for careful hypothesis-driven research on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements, and,...

The European market

Due to the uncertain interpretation of rules and the lack of a harmonized legislation, anyone who has ever tried to market food supplements containing herbs, having in mind to sell the same product in the majority of EU countries, will experience the range of complications and practical difficulties which may arise. For instance, the first problem may be the legal status of the herbal product in certain countries it will be deemed as a medicine, in others as a food or a food ingredient. Talking about dietary supplements in Europe means considering both the above-mentioned categories because of the different legal basis that a single product can have in different states. As a matter of fact, we must not limit our discussion to food products. From the description of a herbal product as a medicine or as a food can derive the practical feasibility of marketing it in a number of countries. A good example of this can be marketing a Ginkgo biloba product, claiming its capability to improve...

New terminology

The expanding world of dietary supplements especially in the USA, has learned new terminology such as 'functional foods', 'novel foods', 'nutraceuticals', 'designer foods', 'pharmafood', 'phytoceuticals'. These terms are used to describe At present, in the USA, there is no legislation governing the use of nutraceuticals or functional foods. The FDA states that existing regulations for foods are sufficient and that companies must decide on intended use (conventional food or dietary supplement) early in product development (Anon., 2000).

For the Future

As the international development community looks to the future, where should it focus its knowledge-research efforts against malnutrition More and better evaluations of nutrition programs are critically needed. Sound evaluations are needed not just of programs that are clear successes but of those that are not for it is as important to know why programs fail as it is to know why they succeed. And the lessons of both success and failure need to be effectively disseminated.

Bergapten

Biosynthesis Anthocyanins

Soybeans are a unique dietary source of the isoflavone genistein, which possesses weak oestrogenic activity and has been shown to act in animal models as an anti-oestrogen. Genistein is also a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases it also inhibits DNA topoisomerases and other critical enzymes involved in signal transduc-tion (Messina et al, 1994). Genistein is highly bioavailable in rats because its enterohepatic circulation may accumulate within the gastrointestinal tract (Sfakianos et al, 1997). The branch pathway for the formation of isoflavonoids shares several mechanistic features with the anthocyanin pathway. However, the first reaction specific for isoflavonoid biosynthesis is unique. It comprises 2-hydroxylation coupled to aryl migration of the B-ring of a flavanone (naringenin or daidzein) to yield, after a dehydration reaction that might be spontaneous or enzyme-catalysed (Hakamatsuka et al, 1998), the corresponding isoflavone (genistein or daidzein, respectively)....

Tanzania

We Will Never Go Back (UNICEF 1993) tells the story of nutrition and, more generally, community-based program development in the Iringa region of Tanzania during the 1980s it tells how this effective programmatic approach expanded to other areas of the country, as the Child Survival and Development Programme (CSDP). Despite the achievements of the program and the buoyancy suggested by the tide, the monograph proved to be overly optimistic. During the 1990s in Tanzania, the CSDP and nutrition programs more generally were battered by economic decline, government and health sector reform, decentralization of authority to ill-equipped and poorly financed district authorities, and a high proportion of distressed communities that were no longer able to support village workers. Not surprisingly, the result has been a serious decline in the quantity and quality of nutrition-related services, stagnation or reversal of the earlier decrease in malnutrition, and the virtual disappearance of...

Addictionsubstance abuse

Addictions that may be added to these disorders include nymphomania, compulsive shopping, and overeating, all of which, in excess, lead to behaviors that are both illogical and harmful. Returning to the anhedonia context of addiction behaviors, the inability to gain pleasure from normally pleasurable experiences, it is debatable whether the milder forms of addiction are not in fact manifestations of depression. In this context, it is noteworthy that current medications for the treatment of obesity, the impulse dyscontrol related to food consumption, are antidepressants.

Genetic Considerations

Metabolic alkalosis is a common disorder of adult hospitalized patients. Elderly patients are at risk for metabolic alkalosis because of their delicate fluid and electrolyte status. Young women who practice self-induced vomiting to lose weight are also at risk for developing metabolic alka-losis. Finally, middle-aged men and women with chronic hypercapnia respiratory failure are at risk for metabolic alkalosis if their PaCO2 levels are rapidly decreased with mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, or antacids.

Caenorhabditis elegans

One example of the power of whole-genome functional screens for target identification using feeding libraries comes in the area of obesity research by using a live stain for fat droplets, Nile red, genes involved in storage and mobilization of fat reserves could be identified by RNAi.85 From a whole-genome feeding library, dsRNAs targeting approximately 300 genes exhibited a significant and specific fat deposition phenotype in this assay. Further testing of these dsRNA clones on mutants defective in known players of fat metabolism, such as the insulin and serotonin signaling pathways, allowed for pathway mapping of the targets and resulted in identification of potentially novel targets that affect fat regulation independently of the known pathways. This type of mixed approach, using genomics technologies to identify novel potential targets and using mutants derived from classical genetics studies to validate and characterize them, is extremely rapid and cost-effective in nematodes.

Risk Factors and Cancer

Diet and obesity in adults account for 30 of all cancer deaths in the USA. Diet has been shown to play a significant role in the causation of cancer but little is known about how it plays its role as a carcinogen.15,18 Excessive fat in the diet raises the risk of colorectal and breast cancer and possibly prostate cancer. Adult obesity is associated with endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, and cancers of the colon, rectum, and kidney.15,18 Obesity in concert with other risk factors such as low activity level, menopausal status, and predisposition to insulin resistance significantly increase the risk of cancer. While some methods of food preparation and preservation have been shown to increase the risk of various forms of cancers, certain classes of foods appear to contain protective substances against cancer including vegetables, whole grain products (fiber), and citrus fruits.12,15,18,20 Salt intake has been associated with risk of stomach cancer, but no other food...

From raw materials to consumer

Traditionally, most of the food is prepared at home. The majority of modern consumers prefer to buy pretreated food which is easily stored and prepared at home. Changes in society, such as more women working away from home, falling birth rate, aging of the population, in combination with familiarity with foreign cultures, influence the modern food supply. Recently, food products with special characteristics, desirable from a nutritional or social point of view, have been developed. These include products containing less saturated and more unsaturated fat, fewer calories, less cholesterol, and more dietary fiber. In general, the food processing industry appears to be willing to gratify the consumer's wishes.

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

Much of the collaborative management is based on pharmacologic therapy (see below). Supportive management consists of treatment of malignancies with chemotherapy and irradiation, treatment of infections as they develop, and the management of discomfort with analgesia. Surgical management may be needed to excise lesions from Kaposi's sarcoma or to drain abscesses. If the patient becomes short of breath, oxygen is often prescribed to improve gas exchange. Dietary support is important in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS throughout the progression of the illness.

Prenutrition Labeling And Education Act Of 1990

Even before the issuance of the first Dietary Guidelines for Americans in 1980, the FDA and the food industry had realized the problems created by there being no indication on the food label of the complex carbohydrate content of a food. At the same time dietary guidance almost universally advised consumers to increase their consumption of complex carbohydrates. For example, in 1978, the Kellogg Company had submitted a petition to the FDA to voluntarily permit the declaration of (1) grams per serving of starch and related carbohydrates, (2) grams per serving of sucrose and other sugars, and (3) grams per serving of total carbohydrates the sum of (1) and (2) . The Agency did not grant the Kellogg petition, but in the years from 1980 to 1993 many cereal companies listed either complex carbohydrates or starches and related carbohydrates on the labels of their products and the FDA took no regulatory actions. ommendations with respect to the nutrient or component are high-lighted in the...

The Benefits of Exercise

Along with a healthy diet, exercise is the cornerstone of good health. Physical activity produces a multitude of benefits for your overall health and well-being. Being active helps prevent heart disease and stroke by lowering cholesterol levels and making the heart pump more efficiently. It reduces the risk of dying prematurely, especially of heart disease. Physical activity helps control your weight and prevent obesity, which is a risk factor for high blood pressure and diabetes. Regular exercise also can improve your mood, reduce stress, and relieve depression, not to mention build muscular strength and tone, increase your flexibility,

The first step investigation of patterning

The first step in comparative analyses is to describe the patterns of distribution of the characteristics of interest across a chosen sample, in order to establish whether the conditions for one of the four methods exist. This involves investigating whether particular variants of one categorical variable are associated with particular variants of another, or whether continuous variables are correlated across the sample. Essentially, this is a similar process whether the variables concerned are categorical or continuous, and many features can be described either way. For example, dietary variation can be categorised according to the predominant food, as insectivory, frugivory etc., or measured according to the proportion of a particular food type in the diet, such as percentage fruit (e.g see Chapter 13). Where there is a choice of either a categorical or continuous measure, factors such as the nature and quality of available data, and the question under investigation are important....

Mineral Bioavailability

Our recent studies (27) have shown that feeding rats with oligofructose or inulin at the dose of 10 leads to an increased fecal excretion of N, resulting most probably from an increase in fecal bacteria and leading to a decreased urinary excretion of urea and decreased uremia. Such results are in accordance with those obtained with other dietary fibers. The possible interference of dietary fibers with ion absorption relative to their physiological effects on the small intestine and the colon has regularly been questioned. In a recent experiment in rats fed a diet supplemented with 10 FOS or inulin, we have demonstrated that the balance for Ca, Mg, and Fe is improved (27). This beneficial effect, quite surprising as compared to the effect of dietary fiber, may result from an increased intestinal absorption of the minerals. This effect has also been observed by Levrat et al. (28) in rats fed a diet containing

Reduced Side Effect Liability

Current pharmacological approaches to the treatment of schizophrenia suffer from two major issues side effects and limited efficacy. The first major unmet medical need is improved side effect liability. Even the best of the modern atypical antipsychotics produce significant side effects with a low therapeutic index. Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased risk of death and, in general a 20 shorter life span84,85 that, in part, may be attributable to the use of current antipsychotic medications. As discussed above, atypical antipsychotics have a clear lower risk of inducing EPS and hyperprolactinemia (with the exception of risperidone) when compared to typical antipsychotics, but the risk still exists. Furthermore, several atypicals, particularly clozapine and olanzapine, increase the risk of sedation, obesity, high blood sugar and diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Very rare cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a rare but potentially fatal reaction characterized by fever,...

Suggested Alternatives to the Term Complex Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates has been taken to mean either starches or starches plus dietary fiber. Thus, the term is a source of confusion, is difficult to define in a manner that can be verified analytically and has little scientific meaning for many scientists and lay people alike (1, 2). There is a need to simplify and more clearly define in chemical terms what is meant by the advice to consume foods high in complex carbohydrates. It is time to re-think the use of this chemically undefined term and we suggest that complex carbohydrate be replaced by the terms starch and dietary fiber.

Measurement And Identification Of Carbohydrates

As the physiological effects of different polysaccharides become better understood it is appropriate to bring improved definition and precision to the area of food carbohydrates. This message is important when one considers that as recently as 1992 carbohydrate was still measured by difference in USDA Handbook 8, a practice subject to error because it includes minor non-carbohydrate components and is subject to cumulative analytical error derived from the analyses for protein, fat, moisture and ash. The FDA does not permit the term complex carbohydrate but requires the term other carbohydrate which is defined as the amount of carbohydrates remaining after subtraction of dietary fiber, sugars and sugar alcohols from total carbohydrates (3). This introduces another ill-defined and confusing term and continues to avoid mentioning by name the chemically well-defined term starch.

Antidiabetic Agents Insulins

Uses Replacement therapy in type I diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis or diabetic coma (use regular insulin). Insulin is also indicated in type II diabetes when other measures have failed (e.g., diet, exercise, weight reduction) or with surgery, trauma, infection, fever, endocrine dysfunction, pregnancy, gangrene, Ray-naud's disease, kidney or liver dysfunction.

Physiological Effects And Labeling

Because high carbohydrate diets containing foods high in starches and dietary fiber can have beneficial health effects, the most useful and practical position at present for the purposes of labeling is to identify starches and dietary fiber separately. This approach to simplifying the definitions, analytical and labeling issues would facilitate healthy food choices by the consumer. Products enriched in non-native or novel fiber sources also have a place in the market and may have benefit for particular segments of the population. Thus, the only justification for enriching foods in these materials should be the clear demonstration of beneficial physiological effects and not simply the artificial inflation of total carbohydrate and dietary fiber values.

Healthy Diet Guidelines

What is the best diet to follow to ensure good health Doctors advise that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see page 6) and the Food Guide Pyramid (see page 5) are the best general guidelines for healthy people. You can adapt these guidelines to meet your individual needs by working with your doctor to find out your personal health risks. As part of a thorough physical examination, your doctor will check your cholesterol and blood sugar levels and your blood pressure. He or she also will ask you a series of questions to find out your family health history (see page 80). You can also calculate your body mass index (see page 18) and waist-to-hip ratio (see page 18) yourself to find out the distribution of fat on your body. By using this information you and your doctor can tailor your diet to lower your personal risk of disease. For example, if you have a high cholesterol level and a family history of heart disease, your doctor probably will recommend that you lower your intake of...

Changing Nutritional Needs throughout Life

Toddlers and preschoolers sometimes become picky eaters as their newfound independence propels them into a variety of activities that seem much more interesting than eating. The best solution is to keep offering your young child a variety of foods while not forcing him or her to eat any one food in particular. A good rule of thumb to use when portioning out food is 1 tablespoon of food for every year of age, so, for example, a 3-year-old would get 3 tablespoons of each food at mealtime. Children under 2 years should not yet follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see page 6) because they need fat in their diet for brain development. As your child enters school, he or she will continue to need plenty of calories for proper growth, but be sure to encourage your child to engage in physical activity to balance his or her calorie intake. More and more American children are becoming overweight, a problem that can cause health problems such as obesity and diabetes in adulthood. Getting...

Antihypertensive Agents

Minoxidil, oral General Statement The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure classifies BP for adults aged 18 and over as follows Optimal as < 120 < 80 mm Hg, Normal as < 130 < 85 mm Hg, High Normal as 130-139 85-89 mm Hg, Stage 1 Hypertension as 140-159 90-99 mm Hg, Stage 2 Hypertension as 160-179 100-109 mm Hg, and Stage 3 Hypertension as 180 or greater 110 or greater mm Hg. Drug therapy is recommended depending on the BP and whether certain risk factors (e.g., smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, age, gender, target organ damage, clinical CV disease) are present. Life-style modification is an important component of treating hypertension, including weight reduction, reduction of sodium intake, regular exercise, cessation of smoking, and moderate alcohol intake.

Nursing Care Plans And Individual Client Care Needs

Collect assessment data from all available sources including the client, the family, other providers, and the chart. Chart data may include nurse's notes or flow sheets laboratory, diagnostic, or surgical reports progress notes from dietary, rehab, or physical therapy the physician's history and physical, and progress notes. Assess the client's current status through the interview, observation, and physical examination. After studying the health record and obtaining assessment data, organize the information into prioritized problem or client need categories.

The Diagnosis of Kidney Failure

A striking difference between true prevalence and diagnosed disease was shown in diabetic kidney disease by a report from Atlanta. In 1994 the authors reviewed hospital charts of 260 people with diabetes aged 64 to 75. Only 63 percent of the sample had their urine analyzed during their admission. Of these, 31 percent had urine protein of 1+ or greater, indicating advanced kidney disease. Twenty-five percent of the people with diabetes had elevated serum creatinine, but abnormal kidney function was noted in the discharge summaries of only 8 percent. None of these patients' medical records indicated that they had received dietary instructions about protein restriction, education about avoiding unnecessary use of NSAID's nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, see Chapter 19 , or education about diabetic renal disease. (These are some of the treatments we'll be discussing later in the book). Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers were no more...

Methodology Development

The McGovern commission recommended that FDA establish a definition of complex carbohydrates. The FDA methodology for measuring complex carbohydrates is determined by summing the total dietary fiber and available starch measured in the sample. Using 80 aqueous ethanol simple carbohydrates (sugars Duplicate samples of the de-sugared, sugar- and fat-extracted food are treated with a heat-stable amylase to degrade its starch. Each sample is then digested with a protease and an amyloglucosidase mixture to remove protein and starch. Incubation is performed under conditions specified in the AOAC International current method for dietary fiber in food and food products. After the addition of four volumes of ethanol, each sample is filtered. The filtrate is collected and set aside for analysis of available starch content. The residue collected on the filter is washed with ethanol and acetone to remove any remaining low-molecular-weight materials, dried, and weighed. Total dietary fiber is...

Fetal Maternal Relationships

Pregnancy affects thyroid homeostasis. An increased excretion of iodine in the urine accounts for the increase in thyroid volume even in areas of moderate dietary iodine intake 4 . Some studies, however, do not show an increase in urinary iodine during pregnancy. In either case the increase in thyroid volume is the result of imbalance between the intake and increased requirements of iodine during pregnancy 5 . Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with maternal goitre and reduced maternal thyroxine (T4) level. While thyroid size increases in areas of iodine deficiency it does not do so in those regions that are iodine sufficient even in moderate iodine-deficient regions urinary iodine excretion is higher in all trimesters than in non-pregnant women and may be

Buying Preparing and Storing Food

When you go to the grocery store, keep a few tips in mind to help you make the healthiest food choices. First, remember the Food Guide Pyramid and buy your groceries accordingly. That means filling your shopping cart with a wide variety of grain foods (such as breads, pasta, rice, and cereals), vegetables, and fruits. Choose whole-grain varieties of breads and pastas more often than those containing refined white flour. Buy only lean meats. Choose low-fat or fat-free dairy products. Limit foods containing high amounts of fats or sugar, such as doughnuts, pastries, chips, and cookies.

Perspectives On Labeling

FDA permits the term other carbohydrate (calculated as the amount of carbohydrate remaining after subtraction of dietary fiber, sugars, and sugar alco- From the perspective of the U. S. food industry, consumers do not understand the term other carbohydrate. A study was conducted to compare consumer understanding of the terms complex carbohydrate and other carbohydrate in the cereal category 6 months before and 6 months after NLEA labels appeared in the marketplace. Results indicated that there is a fair amount of confusion among consumers regarding the term other carbohydrate. The reason for this confusion is the equity in the term complex carbohydrate that has been building since 1977 through references in dietary guidelines, programs by health professionals and industry, and use in pre-NLEA labeling. The return to the term complex carbohydrate would reduce consumer confusion. Factors that should be considered in reinstatement are 1) Opportunities for the use of complex carbohydrate...

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Teach the patient factors that may precipitate anginal episodes and the appropriate measures to control episodes. Teach the patient the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and ways to reduce them. Manage risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia.

Analytical techniques

Inertia into account in a formalised manner, but which rely on biological knowledge and sensitive investigation of the data sets involved to ensure that results are properly founded, grade shifts certainly can be, and are, recognised (contra Purvis and Webster). On the other hand, grade shifts are not necessarily easy to identify using CAIC. For example, a grade shift may not be marked and hence not produce a clearly outlying contrast point. In any case, the size of the contrast measurements between species points on either side of a grade shift is a meaningless combination of the effects of the grade shift and the relationship within any one grade between the two variables concerned. This combination may produce pairs of contrast values that stand out as outlying points on a contrast plot, or it may not, and hence a grade effect would be missed. Also, a grade shift may involve multiple points in a phylogeny. Whilst there is a single phylogenetic link between strepsirhines and...

Summary And Conclusion

This conference resulted in a foundation upon which consensus will be built in the future. Further, it provided a forum for the articulation of the critical need for carbohydrates in human nutrition. We have come a long way in the past 25 years in the food and nutrition sciences and this conference well illustrated that point. At the White House Conference on Nutrition in 1969, macronutrients were never even mentioned as being necessary to nutrition only micronutrients were emphasized. In 1977 the term complex carbohydrate was used without definition in the Dietary Goals for the United States (1). This conference encapsulated the tremendous strides that have been made concerning the chemical, nutritional, biologic, and physiologic importance of carbohydrates in health and disease. It is fascinating to review the recommendations concerning complex carbohydrate from 1977 on. The list includes recommendations made by the Senate Select Committee in 1977, the Dietary Guidelines of 1980,...

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