Wild in the Kitchen: Recipes for Wild Fruits
All You Wanted To Know About The Raw Food Diet
Raw food diets can be great way to not only lose weight but also led a much healthier, natural lifestyle in general. Most raw food diets are plant based with at least 75% of the diet composed of raw food.
Native throughout Africa, this tree produces pinkish-purple fruits, about twice the size of a peanut, which have a tart flavor and apple-like texture with a large pit. These fruits are often gathered from the wild in many parts of Africa, especially Zambia and Swaziland, where they are called umncozi and are the most commonly gathered wild fruit by adults and children alike. Fruits of the brush cherry (S. paniculutum) are gathered from the wild and eaten raw or cooked in Australia (see later).
Safe food handling is essential to prevent food contamination and food poisoning. Always wash your hands thoroughly before you start preparing food. It is very easy to contaminate foods in your kitchen with other foods, such as raw meat, poultry, or eggs, that can have high bacterial counts. In particular, uncooked or undercooked poultry is a leading source of bacterial contamination. Always wash any knives, cutting boards, and countertops that have come into contact with raw poultry, meat, or eggs using hot, soapy water, and wash your hands again after handling them. Never put cooked food onto a plate that had raw food on it. And be sure to cook all meat, poultry, and eggs thoroughly (to 140 degrees Fahrenheit) to kill any bacteria.
During food production, raw food materials of plant or animal origin are exposed to soil, water, air, machinery parts, packaging materials, human hands, etc. As these invariably carry microorganisms, all raw food materials have in principle been inoculated with a variety of microbes. The opportunity for these microorganisms to grow is determined by the food environment. Major environmental factors include availability of water (referred to as water activity or aw) and nutrients, temperature, pH, and presence or absence of atmospheric oxygen. Growth also depends very heavily on how long suitable environmental conditions prevail. The majority of naturally occurring microbial contaminators are unable to multiply, or succumb to other microbes in a food environment. However, even if an infective microorganism remains alive without multiplying, the food may serve as a vehicle to transfer it to the human body and cause illness. Microorganisms which multiply usually degrade the food...
The watermelon may have originated in tropical and southern Africa, where wild fruits are still harvested in the Kalahari desert, including both bitter and sweet types used for water and the edible seeds, and where several locally domesticated cultivars are grown (Bates and Robinson 1995, 89-96). The closely related C. colocynthis appeared earlier than the watermelon in Egypt (at 3800 bc), followed by the watermelon at 2000 bc (Zohary and Hopf 2000). The watermelon spread to Southwest Asia, India, China by the 11th century ad and to the New World in the centuries since contact. Throughout this distribution, locally selected cultivars are numerous, varying in size, shape, color and patterning of the rind, color and density of the flesh, and color of the seeds (Bates and Robinson 1995). China, the United States, and Turkey are major producers, although most subtropical and tropical countries produce enough for self-sufficiency.
Gathering food from the wild represents one of the most complex aspects of the use of wild plants, and was closely intertwined with the history of the first human communities. Although past hunter-gatherers are often thought of primarily as dependent on the hunting of wild animals, archaeological and ethnographic evidence shows that plant foods always formed the bulk of their diet. The only exception is in areas such as the Arctic, where it is too cold for most wild food plants to grow. Even in agricultural communities today, the gathering of wild plants frequently remains important for nutrition and food diversity.
This latter aspect could be of concern to specific sectors of the food industry. If there is a problem with the presence of pathogens in raw foods, e.g. Campylobacter in poultry, then risk needs to be communicated to consumers in a way that both alerts them to the problem and informs them of how they can reduce manage the risk. This is known as the reassurance arousal paradox. Failure by a sector of industry to inform consumers about risk associated with a food could lead to an increase in outrage (see Table 9.4). What is clear is that risk is not just about science but is heavily influenced by psychology, and experts and the public perceive risk in very different ways.33
Most likely to involve drinking contaminated water, or consumption of raw foods, such as oysters which have had contact with contaminated water. Several authors have stated the need for monitoring for Aeromonas as a parameter of water quality. Although the organism can readily be isolated from foods, it is not generally examined for on a routine basis. Detection and enumeration are based on conventional cultural methods. Media were originally devised for use with water, but are suitable for foods, starch-ampicillin medium being considered most effective (ICMSF, 1996). Ampicillin-bile salts-inositol-xylose agar (Aeromonas medium), however, is more effective for recovery of Aeromonas from water when other bacteria are in high numbers (Villari et al., 1999) and may also be superior with unprocessed foods, especially if A. sobria is present (Pin et al., 1994). Enrichment before plating is not normally used, but tryptone-soy broth plus ampicillin is effective when other organisms are...
Cultivated from time immemorial for food purposes, A. caudatus seeds were a staple food in the diet of the Aztecs, who also consumed the aerial parts as greens. In North America, leaves of a number of species were consumed, and today the leaves of some of these species, naturalized in many other tropical and subtropical regions, are still an important wild food in eastern Africa. A. retrof-lexus is important in parts of southern Italy and North Africa.
It is also important that the consumer should protect him herself by safe handling of food. Surveys have shown that most food intoxications originate from inadequately refrigerated storage, or use of left-overs which were not or inadequately re-heated. Also, foods of animal origin should not be consumed raw. Cross-contamination of cooked food with raw food must be avoided by keeping raw and cooked foods separated.
In the absence of firm evidence, there has been a great deal of speculation regarding the antiquity of root cultivation, with frequent suggestions that it predates the domestication of grain crops such as rice or corn. It is certainly true that the tubers can be easily propagated and there is good evidence that current-day hunter-gatherers, such as Australian aborigines, actively manage wild yam patches. However, there is a big difference in food output between a gathered wild food, even if managed, and an intensively cultivated crop. Evidence for intensive agriculture, in the form of fields
The biblical tale of the Garden of Eden describes how fruit trees provided most of Adam and Eve's sustenance. Upon their expulsion from the Garden, they and their descendants had to learn agriculture and live by the sweat of their brows. Modern archaeological research about the transition to agriculture shows that pre-agricultural subsistence included numerous fruit trees in most parts of the world, including Southwest Asia. The more affluent hunter-gatherers, who generally became the first farmers (Hayden 1995, 273-99), used a wide range of fruits and nuts in their subsistence strategies. Fruits were not abandoned during the transition to agriculture, with wild fruits an important resource in most farming communities until recently. However, in temperate areas fruits were generally domesticated several millennia later than the annual cereals and pulses. The timing might in some cases may reflect the difficulty of vegetative propagation of certain trees.
New Guinea, food production focused on them rather than on grain crops. In these regions people remained dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their dietary protein and fat, whereas in regions of early grain cultivation agriculture provided a more balanced diet, which freed cultivators from continuing dependence on wild foods. Thus it was the grain-based agricultural systems that tended to expand into new environments rather than those based on root and tree crops.
The Nieper program recommends calcium EAP treatment along with other measures. Calcium EAP initially is given intravenously in a dosage of 500 milligrams per day for 5 days per week. It is then given long-term as a pill or as an every-other-day intravenous dose of 400 milligrams. Other recommendations include steroid treatment with prednisone (5 to 8 milligrams daily) vitamin and mineral supplements (some at high doses), including selenium and vitamins C, D, and E avoidance of bright sunlight, alcohol, milk and milk products, evening primrose oil, aluminum, fluoride, and drinks that contain phosphoric acid or quinine avoidance of water in the environment by not using waterbeds and hiring a dowser to be certain no underground water exists near one's bedroom and consumption of olive oil and raw food because of their Kirlian positivity.