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The shift toward this antilocalizationist view of brain organization was strongly propelled by the Harvard psychologist Karl Lashley, who removed different parts of rodents' brains to see if there were any specific areas of the brain that, when removed, caused a specific behavioral deficit. Because he found no localized regions where knowledge was stored but rather knowledge seemed to be diffusely represented, he formulated the theory of mass action. A corollary of this hypothesis is that whatever the location of a brain injury, the more tissue that is damaged, the poorer the animal performs on any task. Unfortunately, during this antilocalizationist period (1920s to 1962), clinical neurologists who presumably should have been interested in localization of function did little to advance knowledge in this field, and many of the British neurologists had a strong negative attitude toward localizationist thinking. Sir Henry Head, one of the leaders of British neurology, wrote inflammatory...
Writers of science fiction have been greatly attracted by the concept of suspended animation, whereby the biochemistry of life could be reversibly suspended for long periods of time and then restored. Although such phenomena do occur in nature, though rarely, it is unfortunately a fact that freezing is normally lethal. In order to understand the effects of very low temperatures, we have to recognize that many structures and processes are temperature dependent and, consequently, cooling has extraordinarily complex effects that produce conditions that are far removed from normal physiology. When we cool below 0 C the biological effects are dominated by the freezing of water, which typically constitutes at least 80 of the tissue mass. Freezing is the conversion of liquid water to crystalline ice, which results in the concentration of dissolved solutes in the remaining liquid phase and the precipitation of any solutes that exceed their solubility limit. It was not until 1948 that a...
The two terms of hydrolysis and hydration both imply bond breakage with addition of a molecule of H2O. In this text, we prefer to apply the term 'hydrolysis' to the cleavage of esters (carboxylesters, lactones, inorganic esters), amides (carboxamides, sulfamates, phosphoamides, lactams, etc.), and glycosides. In contrast, the term 'hydration' will be restricted to epoxides, although the enzymes catalyzing this reaction are also classified as hydrolases (see below). Readers in search of a much more extensive treatment of hydrolases and their metabolic reactions of hydrolysis and hydration might want to consult a recent book coauthored by this writer.5
A related issue involves the practical or clinical significance of findings that are significant statistically at the .05 or even at the .001 level of significance. It appears from numerous reports that researchers have been led to worship at the shrine of statistical significance. Very likely, this may result from the emphasis individuals place on obtaining positive results and the fear of not being able to reject the null hypothesis. Many investigators appear content, and some even euphoric, at obtaining positive results'' at the .05 level of significance, regardless of whether the results appear to have potential diagnostic use. Of all the limitations the present writer has encountered in reviewing journal manuscripts, the emphasis on statistical significance and the disregard of practical psychological significance is probably the most frequent.
Authors-Writers In creative writing the ability to use techniques such as metaphor and inference is critical, but so is the overall organization of sentences and paragraphs. Delis, Waper, Gardner, and Moses's (1983) study of patients with right- and left-hemisphere damage showed that the patients with right-hemisphere damage were also impaired at organization. In regard to content, creative writers often portray emotional states and write humorous works. Bihrle, Brownell, Powelson, and Gardner (1986) studied the ability of patients with right- and left-hemisphere strokes to comprehend humor by showing them cartoons, On the basis of this brief review, we can see that creative writing requires the use of both hemispheres. Thus, writing with one hand versus the other would not confer any benefit. In addition, now many writers use keyboards where both hands are used. Because creative writing would require the use of both hemispheres, perhaps people who have better interhemispheric...
Ginger reached the Greek and Roman Empires via the Arabs, accompanied by the Sanskrit name singabera (antlered thing, referring to the shape of the rhizomes, which are the source of the spice). Greek and Roman writers referred frequently to both its culinary and its medicinal uses. Dried rather than fresh rhizomes seem to have been imported, possibly overland, possibly by sea routes around the Indian Ocean to Arabia or East Africa. Dioscorides and Pliny both associated ginger cultivation with Arabia and Trogodytica (which may correspond to present-day Somalia). In ad 150, Ptolemy listed ginger as a product of Ceylon. The supposed aphrodisiac properties of ginger figure in The Thousand and One Nights and, according to the Koran, a ginger drink is served to the righteous in Paradise.
About the prevalence of child sexual abuse by fathers and others, which has held up in current time as a factor for Dissociative Identity Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder, may have been too much for Freud to accept. Some believe that he experienced a personal crisis and worried about the impact that publishing these findings might have on his career. He has been harshly criticized and condemned by some modern-day writers (Masson, 1984, 1990). According to Masson, the field of psychoanalysis suppressed the truth and did not take seriously patient reports of incest and abuse. Rachman (1997) writes
You may decide to compile the document yourself, or delegate this to a medical writer and adopt a purely editorial role. Whoever is involved, there will be an enormous pressure to complete the task as early as possible, since it is the mother of all critical activities. Nevertheless, in the shifting world of drug development, not all the pieces of the jigsaw may be available. The final number of investigators required may not be known, some long-term animal studies may not yet be complete, there may be a late change in the product formula, investigators may differ on the classification of a disease or an at-risk population, rating scales and available treatments may vary between countries. A decision will then have to be taken to proceed with a document which is the best fit between current knowledge and the urgency to publish.
Next you need to assign a duration to each of the activities and events. The best approach is to obtain time-to-complete estimates from the process owners themselves (eg data managers, medical writers etc). You will of course have to provide them with accurate information on which to base their calculations (eg number of patients, number of investigators, number of pages CRF etc). It is also worth comparing the estimates you get with status report data from previous studies. It is commonly the case, for example, that ethics committee IRB approvals are underestimated by weeks and months. Here the more pessimistic experience from previous studies will allow you to compensate in your planning.
Benzoin has been traded in Southeast Asia for at least 1,000 years, and is mentioned by Chinese writers of the Sung Dynasty (ad 960-1279) as an import from Sumatra and Cambodia. The fragrant resin from several species is collected, mainly in Indonesia and Laos, by wounding the bark of the tree. This resin has medicinal uses, for example in cough treatments, and ceremonial uses, particularly in incense. It is also used for food and cigarette flavoring. A resin is also obtained from S. officinalis, which grows in southern Europe and Turkey.
Cotton pickers Pulaski County Arkansas Ben Shahn 1935 Library of Congress Prints Photographs Division Fsaowi Collection
The earliest Old World written record of cotton is in the Asvalayana Sranta Seitra, dating from about 800 bc, which refers to a law requiring the sacred thread of Brahmans to be made of cotton. The use of cotton wall coverings by King Solomon is described in the Bible in the Book of Esther. In the 5th century bc Herodotus wrote The Indians have a wild-growing tree which instead of fruit produces a species of wool similar to that of sheep, but of finer and better quality. Later reports on the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great (356 to 323 bc) described a wool-bearing tree some 3 to 4 feet high, from the bolls of which the seed was removed to give a fiber, the fabric woven from this fiber being finer and whiter than anything else. Proof that the Egyptians were also cultivating cotton by the 1st century ad comes from the writings of Pliny the Elder The upper part of Egypt, facing Arabia, produces a shrub which is called gossip-ion. . . . The fruit of this shrub resembles a bearded...
Because the frontal lobes are important for long-term goals they allow us to perform activities that might not always make us immediately happy but might provide long-term rewards. In his book, Creativity, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1996) called these behaviors exotelic. In the beginning of this chapter, however, I wrote that while some creative artists, writers, composers, and scientists do obtain fortune and fame, very few of these people get wealthy or famous by performing creative acts. Some, when they started their creative careers, might have thought that their creativity would bring them fame and fortune, but after several years many creative people realize that these aspirations will never be fulfilled. This knowledge, however, often does not stop them from continuing their creative activities. Creative people often continue to create because performing this act brings them enjoyment and fulfillment. This self-motivated behavior, which is not performed for any future or immediate
Given the goal of mapping a functional classification onto sequence and structure classifications, several problems associated with current functional categorizations are generally recognized. Gerlt and Babbitt (2000), who are among the most thoughtful writers on the subject, pointed out that 'no structurally contextual definitions of enzyme function exist'. They propose a general hierarchical classification of function better integrated with sequence and structure. For enzymes they define the following.
Provided by various writers on this subject (Bellack & DiClemente, 1999 Carey, 1995 Drake et al., 2001 Drake & Mueser, 2000 Najavits et al., 1996 Rounsaville & Carroll, 1997 Ziedonis, Williams, Corrigan, & Smelsen, 2000). Although treatment modalities differ, some common themes can help guide clinicians who must decide how to intervene with their patients. The suggestions are as follows
Sir The usual Ophthalmological Congress in Heidelberg has just closed its session, and a few cursory notes at this early date may interest some readers. At this meeting elaborate papers are not read, but condensed statements are presented of the subjects introduced. The notable feature of this Society is that only new things or new phases of old topics are presented. This is not from any expressed rule, but is from the tacit understanding which controls men who are so diligently investigating the unknown in science as are these eager workers. These men have no patience with mere reiterations. Perhaps the most notable thing which was presented was the exhibition to the Congress upon one of the patients of the Heidelberg Eye Clinic, of the extraordinary anaesthetic power which a two per cent, solution of muriate of cocaine has upon the cornea and conjunctiva when it is dropped into the eye. Two drops of the solution were dropped into the eye of the patient at the first experiment, and...
If the creative act brings satisfaction and fulfillment, why do creative people often have affective disorders such as depression In addition to having a high prevalence of affective disorders, creative people, especially writers, composer-musicians, and fine artists, have a very high rate of substance abuse, such as alcoholism (Post, 1994, 1996). As I mentioned in the chapter on neurotransmitters (chapter 8), although creative people often go through many trials and tribulations to accomplish creative endeavors, creativity itself probably does not induce affective disorders, but rather the people who are creative probably have some of the anatomic, physiological, or neurotransmitter abnormalities that Although there is a high incidence of substance abuse among some creative disciplines, there is a relatively low incidence in other disciplines. In addition, in every discipline there are people who have no problems with addiction. The reason why certain disciplines have a higher rate...
Significance of 'access' or 'accessibility' are nonetheless often left unclear. Insofar as it is important in equity it seems that it is cheapness of access that really matters, usually because the writer will have some notion underlying their concern for equity about the importance of meeting need, and access seems to be a precondition for having needs assessed in order that they might be met. Economists typically treat accessibility as a comprehensive term for 'price' that is, any user monetary fee that is to be paid plus time and transport costs, waiting, and any other element that constitutes a 'barrier' whether or not that barrier takes a monetary form or can be converted into a monetary form. This emphasizes financial barriers to access. Other barriers may be physical, institutional or social. Some may be direct, others indirect. For example, access to insurance may be the only route to accessing health care itself. The following have all been found to be important practical...
Some families find enormous strengths within their family and friendship networks. However, many seriously ill people are lonely despite having families and they feel that it is their duty to die quickly (Craib 1999). The patient may gradually withdraw from life in preparation for death, as we shall see from some case examples, but family and professional carers may also distance themselves from the patient. This attempt to lessen the pain can lead to what some writers describe as social death (Mulkay 1993).
According to Eysenck (1995), Aristotle claimed, No great genius has ever been without some madness. According to Simonton (1999), Aristotle also wrote, Those who have become eminent in philosophy, politics, poetry and the arts all had tendencies toward melancholia. John Adams said, Genius is sorrow's child. In his book, Eysenck tried to make the argument that there is a strong relationship between creativity, psychosis, and schizophreniform thinking, but then quoted Eisenman's studies that demonstrate that schizophrenics are even less creative than normal hospital employees, who Eysenck noted are not particularly creative. Kraepelin in 1921 noted that manic-depressive psychosis was often associated with enhanced creativity (Weisberg, 1994). Post (1996) studied the biographies of a large group of world-famous creative people, such as composers, scientists, artists, and writers. To classify these people, Post used the diagnostic criteria found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of...
Johan von Tschudi was one of the early explorers of the Amazon. He was a prolific writer, and his travel books were widely read in Europe and the U.S. He, too, was impressed with the apparent ability of coca to increase endurance, but he was concerned that Europeans might develop a habit. His book Travels in Peru, first published in 1847, contains the first accurate description of cocaine binging (von Tschudi, 1847). The term describes the tendency of cocaine users to consume, in one session, all the drug in their possession. According to von Tschudi, They give themselves up for days together to the passionate enjoyment of the leaves. Then their excited imaginations conjure up the most wonderful visions. .I have never yet been able to ascertain correctly the conditions the Coquero passes through on returning to his ordinary state it, however, appears that it is not so much a want of sleep, or the absence of food, as the want of coca that puts an end to the lengthened debauch.
As Van Gogh, Picasso, and Rembrandt composers such as Beethoven, Mozart, and Tchaikovsky writers such as Vonnegut, Fitzgerald, and Steinbeck are also creative. Coleridge, as quoted by Bronowski (1972), provided an explanation of artistic creativity that is similar to the one discussed about scientific creativity Artistic beauty is a unity in variety.
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